Application of ecology in landscape planning
In recent years, urban beautification has been carried out in China for a long time, but many oasis methods are monotonous, single-purpose, large investment in protection, and the state of paying attention to the scene, ignoring the ecology and seeking "one-time formation" by excessive fire is far from being changed, affecting the health and service functions of urban oasis system. Although this situation is being changed, forests entering cities, ecological priority, and ecological gardens are being widely advocated, it is recognized that the ecological and environmental benefits of oases depend not only on the beautified coverage (coverage) and the area covered (oasis rate), but also on the spatial structure and types of oases, as well as on the biological communities that make up the oasis. Type. However, ecological priority and ecological principles often become a virtual conceptual signboard, which can not be embodied in the engineering entity of oasis. In the planning and planning of the formulation and evaluation of experience and feeling, or in accordance with the perseverance of the leader, or relying on a common sense theory has been severely aging experts. The construction of green belts around the city and the main traffic roads has the phenomenon of blind comparison, but the understanding of its effect is very vague, and some project plans do not conform to the national conditions. People-oriented, the unity of nature and man has become a word hanging in the mouth, people-oriented is to satisfy people's needs, but people's needs are multi-faceted, how to choose? How can heaven and man integrate into one, perhaps close to one? These problems have not been thoroughly dealt with.
1 nature does not belong to man, but man belongs to nature.
Natural ecological system is a product of long-term mutual effect and co-evolution with local environment. Its structure is chaotic, stable and has the ability of self-preservation, renewal and development. The climax community in natural ecosystems is the most powerful ecosystem type of ecosystem.
The evolution of the earth's environment has led to the occurrence of organisms, which have altered the earth's environment. Biological objects and their living environments constitute a dynamic complex ecosystem with extremely disorderly and mutually effective effects. Each organism has its own way of using environmental resources and biological links with other organisms, i.e. niche. As a group of organisms, human beings, like other organisms, can not live without the natural environment that is co-evolved with biology. That is to say, human beings rely on the natural ecological system of life support system for their livelihood, but since human civilization and their own production, human beings began to use and improve according to their own needs. The creation of the natural world, and the increasing level of human activity and influence, has had an inestimable impact on the process of natural evolution and natural structure system, with the same ability to characterize the natural structure and change the natural evolution process as geological elements. On the one hand, man relies on the natural life support system, on the other hand, he constructs a huge artificial system which is separated from the natural system by his own ability, and more and more makes himself become a highly niche-specific organism. The city is a man-made environment system which is established by the strong transformation and habits of the natural system in accordance with human perseverance and hope. A city is a highly densely built artificial entity, a highly densely populated social entity, an economic, scientific, technological and civilized entity with high-speed exchange of energy flow, logistics and information. But any city is built on the basis of the natural system, whether in the whole sense of the city, or in the biological sense of the urban population can not be separated from the regional or global ecological system and independent livelihood.
2 landscape oasis system is a bridge linking artificial environment system and natural ecosystem.
Habitat environment is the place where human beings live together, the surface space closely related to human livelihood activities, the basis of human livelihood in nature, and the primary place where human beings use and transform nature. In space, human settlements can be further divided into two parts: ecological oasis system and artificial construction system. As a typical type of human settlement environment, city can not be separated from the biomass and energy of ecological system, from the atmospheric environment, solar and thermal environment, water environment, and the mental mechanism of the long-term evolution. However, the modern urban human settlements are more and more alienated to the natural environment. Human living rooms and office buildings are more and more artificially controlled. Urban space and even part of the atmosphere are more and more filled with artifacts. The shelters built are more and more specialized. People live in air-conditioned buildings in four seasons. Feeling "comfortable" relies more and more on the part of the atmosphere, temperature, manufacturing system, transportation system, the opposite duality needs an intermediary to harmonize, whether the environment or the mind needs this harmony, can undertake this function and spatial harmony effect as long as relying on the garden oasis ecological system. As long as the garden oasis ecological system becomes the main part of the human settlement environment and the bridge linking the artificial environment and the natural environment ecological system, we can accomplish what Mr. Wu Liangfu said: "the construction of human settlement environment itself is a method of the combination and effect between man and nature. The ideal human settlement environment is the harmony between man and nature.
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