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生态学在园林景象规划中的使用
发布时间:2018-10-13
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生态学在园林景象规划中的使用
Application of ecology in landscape planning
近年来,我国城市美化得到久远开展,但许多绿洲方法单调、功用单一、保护投入大,而重景象、轻生态以及过火寻求“一次成型”的状态也远未改动,影响了城市绿洲体系的健康和效劳功用。虽然这种情况正在得到改动,森林进城、生态优先,生态园林得到遍及倡导,认识到绿洲的生态环境效益不仅取决美化的覆盖面积(覆盖率)和占地面积(绿洲率),而且取决于空间结构和绿洲类型,以及构成绿洲的生物群落类型。但生态优先、生态原则往往成为一种虚化的概念性招牌,无法体现在绿洲的工程实体中。在规划方案的制定和规划的评审中凭经历和感觉,或是遵照首长毅力,或是依托某个常识理论已严峻老化的老专家。环城、交通干道的绿带建造存在盲目攀比现象,但对其效果的认识非常含糊,一些工程规划不符合国情。以人为本、天人合一成为挂在嘴边的一句话,以人为本就是满意人的需求,可是人的需求是多方面的,怎样去取舍?天和人怎样才干合一,或许接近合一?这些问题没有彻底处理。
In recent years, urban beautification has been carried out in China for a long time, but many oasis methods are monotonous, single-purpose, large investment in protection, and the state of paying attention to the scene, ignoring the ecology and seeking "one-time formation" by excessive fire is far from being changed, affecting the health and service functions of urban oasis system. Although this situation is being changed, forests entering cities, ecological priority, and ecological gardens are being widely advocated, it is recognized that the ecological and environmental benefits of oases depend not only on the beautified coverage (coverage) and the area covered (oasis rate), but also on the spatial structure and types of oases, as well as on the biological communities that make up the oasis. Type. However, ecological priority and ecological principles often become a virtual conceptual signboard, which can not be embodied in the engineering entity of oasis. In the planning and planning of the formulation and evaluation of experience and feeling, or in accordance with the perseverance of the leader, or relying on a common sense theory has been severely aging experts. The construction of green belts around the city and the main traffic roads has the phenomenon of blind comparison, but the understanding of its effect is very vague, and some project plans do not conform to the national conditions. People-oriented, the unity of nature and man has become a word hanging in the mouth, people-oriented is to satisfy people's needs, but people's needs are multi-faceted, how to choose? How can heaven and man integrate into one, perhaps close to one? These problems have not been thoroughly dealt with.
1 天然不归于人类,人类归于天然
1 nature does not belong to man, but man belongs to nature.
天然生态体系是与当地环境长时间彼此效果、协同进化的产品,其结构杂乱,稳定性高,具有自我保持、更新和开展才干。天然生态体系中的顶极群落是生态功用强壮的生态体系类型。
Natural ecological system is a product of long-term mutual effect and co-evolution with local environment. Its structure is chaotic, stable and has the ability of self-preservation, renewal and development. The climax community in natural ecosystems is the most powerful ecosystem type of ecosystem.
地球环境的演化发生了生物,生物又改动了地球环境,生物物体与其生计环境所构成了具有极端杂乱彼此效果的动态复合体生态体系,每一种生物有其特有的环境资源使用方法和与其他生物间的生物联系,即生态位。人类作为一个生物的种群,与其他生物相同,生计离不开与生物一起协同演化的天然环境,也就是说,人类依托于天然生态体系生命支持体系而生计,但自从人类有了文明和自己的出产之后,人类开端按自己的需求去使用和改造天然界,而且人类的活动水平及影响力不断加大,已对天然演进的进程及天然结构体系发生了不可估量的影响,具有与地质要素相同的刻画天然结构与改动天然演进进程的才干。人类一方面依托于天然生命支持体系,另一方面凭仗自己的才干构建了与天然体系相阻隔的巨大人工体系,越来越使自己变成生态位高度特化的生物。城市就是依照人类的毅力和希望,对天然体系进行强烈改造和习惯而树立起来的人工环境体系。城市是一种修建物高度密布的人工实体,人口高度密布的社会实体,能流、物流、信息高速交流的经济、科技、文明实体。但任何一个城市都是树立在在天然体系本底根底上的,无论是全体意义上的城市,仍是生物意义上的城市人群不可能脱离区域或全球生态体系而独立生计。
The evolution of the earth's environment has led to the occurrence of organisms, which have altered the earth's environment. Biological objects and their living environments constitute a dynamic complex ecosystem with extremely disorderly and mutually effective effects. Each organism has its own way of using environmental resources and biological links with other organisms, i.e. niche. As a group of organisms, human beings, like other organisms, can not live without the natural environment that is co-evolved with biology. That is to say, human beings rely on the natural ecological system of life support system for their livelihood, but since human civilization and their own production, human beings began to use and improve according to their own needs. The creation of the natural world, and the increasing level of human activity and influence, has had an inestimable impact on the process of natural evolution and natural structure system, with the same ability to characterize the natural structure and change the natural evolution process as geological elements. On the one hand, man relies on the natural life support system, on the other hand, he constructs a huge artificial system which is separated from the natural system by his own ability, and more and more makes himself become a highly niche-specific organism. The city is a man-made environment system which is established by the strong transformation and habits of the natural system in accordance with human perseverance and hope. A city is a highly densely built artificial entity, a highly densely populated social entity, an economic, scientific, technological and civilized entity with high-speed exchange of energy flow, logistics and information. But any city is built on the basis of the natural system, whether in the whole sense of the city, or in the biological sense of the urban population can not be separated from the regional or global ecological system and independent livelihood.
园林建筑工程
2 园林绿洲体系是衔接人工环境体系和天然生态体系的桥梁
2 landscape oasis system is a bridge linking artificial environment system and natural ecosystem.
人居环境地,是人类聚居日子的当地,是与人类生计活动密切相关的地表空间,是人类在大天然赖以生计的根底,是人类使用天然、改造天然的首要场所。在空间上,人居环境又可以再分为生态绿洲体系与人工修建体系两大部分。城市作为人居环境的典型类型离不开生态体系的生物物质、能量,离不开通过长时间演化取得的大气环境、光热环境、水环境,以及由此而发生的心思机制。可是现代城市人居环境越来越向天然环境异化方向开展,人类的居室、办公楼遭到人工操控的程度越来越大,城市的空间,乃至部分大气越来越多地被人工物所充塞,所建造的庇护所越来越特化,人们在四季有空调的修建物内感到“舒适”,越来越依托部分大气、温度、制造体系、交通运输体系,这种对立的二重性需求一个中介来进行谐和,无论是环境仍是心思都需求这种谐和,能承当这种功用上和空间上的谐和效果只要依托园林绿洲生态体系,只要当园林绿洲生态体系成为人居环境的主体部分和衔接人工环境与天然环境生态体系的桥梁,才干完成吴良镛先生所说的“人居环境建造自身就是人与天然彼此联合和效果的一种方法,理想的人居环境是人与天然的调和一致。
Habitat environment is the place where human beings live together, the surface space closely related to human livelihood activities, the basis of human livelihood in nature, and the primary place where human beings use and transform nature. In space, human settlements can be further divided into two parts: ecological oasis system and artificial construction system. As a typical type of human settlement environment, city can not be separated from the biomass and energy of ecological system, from the atmospheric environment, solar and thermal environment, water environment, and the mental mechanism of the long-term evolution. However, the modern urban human settlements are more and more alienated to the natural environment. Human living rooms and office buildings are more and more artificially controlled. Urban space and even part of the atmosphere are more and more filled with artifacts. The shelters built are more and more specialized. People live in air-conditioned buildings in four seasons. Feeling "comfortable" relies more and more on the part of the atmosphere, temperature, manufacturing system, transportation system, the opposite duality needs an intermediary to harmonize, whether the environment or the mind needs this harmony, can undertake this function and spatial harmony effect as long as relying on the garden oasis ecological system. As long as the garden oasis ecological system becomes the main part of the human settlement environment and the bridge linking the artificial environment and the natural environment ecological system, we can accomplish what Mr. Wu Liangfu said: "the construction of human settlement environment itself is a method of the combination and effect between man and nature. The ideal human settlement environment is the harmony between man and nature.
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