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传统徽式宅居的基本格式
发布时间:2018-09-29
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来源: http://www.sdhuiyun.com

传统徽州宅居基本的格局是三间式,一般为三开间、内天井,民间俗称为“一颗印”。平面布局对称,中间厅堂,两侧厢房,楼梯在厅堂前后或在左右两侧。入口处形成一内天井,作采光通风用。在此基础上建筑纵横发展、组合,可形成四合式、大厅式和穿堂式等格局。

The most basic pattern of traditional Huizhou residence is the three-room, generally three-room, inner courtyard, folklore known as "a seal". The plane layout is symmetrical, the middle hall, the two side wing rooms, the staircase are around the hall or on the left and right sides. An inner courtyard is formed at the entrance for lighting and ventilation. On this basis, the development and combination of vertical and horizontal structures can form a pattern of four combinations, hall type and hall style.
四合式大多为人口多的家庭居住,也可说是两组三间式相向组合而成,可分为大四合与小四合。大四合式前厅与后厅相向,中间是大天井。前厅是三间式,但地坪较高,为正厅堂;后厅亦为三间式,但进深可略浅,地坪面较前厅低。前后二厅以厢房相连,活动隔扇,楼梯间有设于厢房的,也有设在前厅背后的。内部木板分隔,外墙均为砖墙出山马头墙。天井则根据地形可大可小,也有的在前厅背后再设厢房、小天井。这种大四合式住宅前后均有楼层。小四合式前厅三间与大四合式同,后厅则为平房,也更小,进深浅,一般中间明堂不能构成后厅,而作为通道,两个房间供居住,天井也较小,楼梯均在前厅背后。
Quadrangles are mostly family dwellings with large population. They can also be said to be the opposite combination of two groups of three rooms. They can be divided into big quadrangles and small quadrangles. The big quadrangle front hall is opposite to the back hall, and the middle is a large patio. The front hall is a three-room type, but the floor is higher, for the main hall; the back hall is also a three-room type, but the depth can be slightly shallow, the floor is lower than the front hall. The front and rear halls are connected by compartments with movable partitions. The staircases are either in the compartments or behind the front hall. The inner planks are divided, and the outer walls are all brick walls. The patio can be large and small depending on the terrain, and there are some wing rooms and small courtyards behind the front hall. This large quadruple apartment has floors before and after. The small quadrangle front hall has three rooms in common with the big quadrangle, and the back hall is a bungalow, which is smaller and shallower. Generally, the middle hall can not form the back hall. As a passage, the two rooms are for living, and the courtyard is smaller. The stairs are behind the front hall.
实验室装修
大厅式住宅的大厅,主要是用于迎接贵宾、办理婚丧大礼和开展祭祀活动等,也作为日常起居场所,它往往是整座住宅的主体部分。大厅多为明厅,三间敞开,两根圆柱显示着大厅的气派。也有用活动隔扇封闭的,以便于冬季使用。
The Hall of the hall-style residence is mainly used to greet VIPs, handle wedding and funeral ceremonies and carry out sacrificial activities, and is also a daily living place. It is often the main part of the whole house. The hall was mostly open hall, three open, two columns showing the style of the hall. It can also be closed with movable fans to facilitate winter use.
一般大厅设二廊,面对天井。大厅式住宅可从正中入口设屏门,平常从屏门两侧出入,遇有礼节性活动则由屏门中门出入。也有在侧面开边门出入,天井下方则设客房。还有由正门出入,门两侧设二厢房者。
The general hall has two corridors facing the patio. Hall-style housing can be set up from the central entrance screen door, usually from both sides of the screen door in and out, encounter ceremonial activities by the screen door in and out. There are also side doors and doors, and rooms under the patio. There are also two door rooms on both sides of the door.
穿堂式又名回厅,穿堂的位置均在大厅背后,与大厅相连,为由大厅进入内室的过渡建筑。大部分为木地板,小三间与大厅背向,入口则由大厅正面隔屏的两侧门进入。穿堂部分有一明堂,两个小房间,可供客人居住,也可家中人居住。这种穿堂式建筑比正式三间式小,有天井采光。
Hall-through, also known as the hall, the location of the hall are behind the hall, connected with the hall, for the hall into the interior of the transitional building. Most of them are wooden floors, with three small rooms facing the back of the hall, and the entrance is entered by the two side doors of the front screen of the hall. In the hall, there is a Ming Tang, two small rooms, which can be used for guests to live in, or for families to live in. This hall type building is smaller than the official three rooms and has skylight lighting.
徽州人有聚族而居的习俗。有的大户人家宅屋成片相连,一百多个天井,但也只是上面几种基本格局的拼接组合而已。
Huizhou people have the custom of gathering together. Some large family houses are connected in pieces, more than a hundred patios, but only the combination of the above several basic patterns.
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