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古建筑大木结构制作的形式介绍
发布时间:2018-09-03
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来源: http://www.sdhuiyun.com
(1)庑殿:庑殿是屋顶前后左右四面都有斜坡的建筑物,它共有五脊。因为面阔长于进深,所以前后两坡相交而成一条正脊,左右两山坡同前后坡相交而成四条垂脊;故庑殿又可称为五脊殿、四阿坡。庑殿的构架,其正身梁架和桁檩枋与一般梁架构造相同,在左右两坡上与前后坡各金桁檩的相应部位设有两山金桁檩,以承托两山的椽子。这两山桁檩与前后坡相应各步架的桁檩,在四条垂脊分位下,做成搭角榫成正角相交。在两山各层桁檩处,在前后坡每层金桁檩中线的垂直面内,在其下面并与之平行的设有各层顺扒梁。
(1) Hall: the hall is a building with a slope on both sides of the roof, which has five ridges. Because the area is wider than the depth, the front and back slopes intersect to form a ridge, and the left and right slopes intersect with the front and back slopes to form four vertical ridges. The main frame and truss purlin of the hall are the same as the general beam frame, and there are two golden purlins on the left and right slopes and on the corresponding parts of the golden purlins on the front and back slopes to support the rafters of the two mountains. The two truss purlins intersect with the truss purlins of the corresponding steps on the front and back slopes at right angles under four vertical ridges. In the vertical plane of the central line of the golden truss purlins on the front and back slopes of the two hills, the downstream girders of each layer are arranged below and parallel to the purlins.
顺扒梁分为上中下层,每层都是一头放在山面桁檩上,一头放在正身梁架上,在顺扒梁上,承托山面径桁檩与前后坡金桁檩相交点的柁墩称交金墩,如为瓜柱则称交金瓜柱,各层桁檩搭角相交处是放由戗的位置,由戗是从角梁后尾做刻半榫相交,继续往上如不推山则相交在脊瓜柱上,由戗是四垂脊的骨架。
The girder is divided into upper, middle and lower floors, each of which is placed on the top of the truss purlin on the mountain, one end on the main girder frame, and on the top of the girder, the pier supporting the intersection of the diameter purlin on the mountain and the front and rear slope of the golden truss purlin is called the cross-golden pier, such as the melon pillar is called the cross-golden gourd pillar, and the intersection of the angles of the truss purlin on each floor is placed from the position of the cross-angle beam. The back end is cut with half mortise, and if the mountain is not pushed upward, it is intersected on the chiroprack, which is the skeleton of the four vertical ridges.
但为了使垂脊在立面投影上形成曲线,一般在庑殿顶上多采用推山法,推山的做法是除檐步架为方角不推外,自金步架至脊步架按进探步架每步尺寸递减一成。如七檩屋架每山面为三个步架(即檐步架、金步、脊步)各步按四尺一步架、除第一步(檐步架)是方角不推山外,从第二步(金步)开始推,第二步按檐步尺寸(四尺)减1/10推四寸的山;,第二步架净尺寸为三尺六寸,第三步按第二步推的尺寸三尺六寸的1/10推山,第三步(脊步架)净尺寸为三尺二寸四分,即七檩推山应向外推的总尺寸为一尺一寸六分,山面经过推山通步架(即三个步架和)共净尺为十尺零八寸四分。如九檩、山面坡是四步架,各步架为四尺.
中式装修设计
But in order to make the vertical ridge curve on the vertical projection, the method of pushing hill is usually adopted on the top of Ludian. The method of pushing hill is to reduce the size of each step from the golden pedestal to the ridge pedestal by 10% except that the eaves are square angles. If the seven purlin roof truss has three steps (eaves, golden steps, ridge steps) on each hill, each step is four feet one step, except that the first step (eaves) is a square angle without pushing the hill, the second step (golden steps) is pushing the hill by 1/10 of the eaves size (four feet); the second step is pushing the hill by 3 feet 6 inches; the third step is pushing the net size of the second step by 3 feet 6 inches. The net size of the third step (ridge pedestal) is 3 feet 2 inches 4 minutes, that is, the total size of the seven purlin pushing hill should be pushed outward is 1 feet 1 inch 6 minutes, and the total net size of the mountain through the pushing pedestal (that is, three pedestals and) is 10 feet 0 8 inches 4 minutes. For example, nine purlin and hill slope are four steps, and each step is four feet.
古建哪家好
Which family is good in ancient architecture?
第一步不推山外,第二步架推四尺的1/10(四寸)净三尺六寸;第三乡按第二步架的三尺六寸推1/10,净三尺二寸四分;第四步架按第三步架三尺二寸四分推1/10,净二尺九寸一分六厘,即脊步架(太平梁位置)为二尺九寸一分六厘。即九檩推山向外推出的总尺寸为二尺二寸四分四厘,即太平梁位置采用推山法以后,金脊檩桁檩都相应加长,使脊桁檩悬出脊瓜柱以搭在雷公柱上,因此须加太平梁。太平梁长是前后坡两脊步架位放在前后坡金桁檩上,再在太平梁上加作雷公柱以支承脊檩
The first step is not pushing the mountain, the second step is pushing 4 feet 1/10 (4 inches) net 3-6 inches; the third township is pushing 1/10 according to 3-6 inches of the second step, 3-2-4 inches net; the fourth step is pushing 1/10 according to 3-2-4 inches of the third step, 2-9-1-6 inches net, that is, the spine step is pushing 2-9-1-6 inches. A per cent. That is to say, the total size of the nine purlins pushing the mountain outward is two feet two inches four centimeters, that is, after the position of the Taiping beam is pushed by the mountain pushing method, the golden ridge purlins are lengthened accordingly, so that the ridge purlins hang out of the ridge gourd pillars to hang on the thunder pillars, so the Taiping beam must be added. The length of the Taiping beam is that the two ridges of the front and back slopes are placed on the gold truss purlin on the front and back slopes, and then a thunderbolt is added to the Taiping beam to support the purlin.
(2)硬山:硬山只有前后两坡,左右两尽端是砖砌山墙,山墙内部有前后檐柱,金柱正中有山柱,山柱上端托脊檩,在缝里的大柁同水平高的位置,有插柁由檐柱直插到山柱上,构成梁架,称为排山柁架,排山各梁架有单步梁、双步梁乃至三步梁,其构造方法与单步梁,双步梁相同。
(2) Hard hill: Hard hill has only two slopes, the left and right ends are brick gables, Gables have front and rear eaves, the gold pillar is in the mountain column, the top of the ridge purlin, in the crack with the same level of high position, there are inserted coffins from the eaves pillar straight into the mountain column, forming a girder frame, known as a row of mountain coffin, row of hill each girder frame has a single-step beam. The construction method of the double step beam and even the three step beam is the same as that of the single step beam and the double step beam.
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