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徽派园林古建筑的来历及特点
发布时间:2018-08-27
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来源: http://www.sdhuiyun.com
概述:传统徽派古建,古建筑,园林古建,修建形制规整一致,修建组合灵敏丰厚。古建砖瓦,古建彩绘,砖木结构为主,青砖、青石、黑瓦、白灰是其修建材料。幽静的山、街、巷构成调和的世外桃源画卷。除掉这些华丽的表面特征,咱们来探讨有关徽派修建结构上的两大特征以及构成原由。
Summary: The traditional Hui style ancient buildings, ancient buildings, ancient gardens, construction of uniform shape, construction combination of sensitive and rich. Ancient bricks and tiles, ancient paintings, brick and wood structure mainly, blue brick, blue stone, black tiles, white ash is its building materials. Quiet mountains, streets, lanes constitute a harmonious picture of the paradise. To get rid of these gorgeous surface features, let's explore the two major features of Hui construction structure and the reasons for its formation.
特征一:徽派景观设计,园林设计,修建表面俭朴,选用封闭式构制,外实内虚,用高高的外墙围护,大门用平整的黟县青石柱做门框,房子顶部砌封火墙。凹凸有致,端部做成形似马头状,即马头墙。房子与房子间外设此墙,以使紧迫时间隔屋间的火路、防止火势蔓延。由于防火墙高出房顶,可作挡盗防贼及防风效果。防火墙造型丰厚多样,有的作阶梯形,有的作弓形,舒展自若,对墙头进行艺术处理,构成抬头漫空的马头墙。在徽派修建中,马头墙另具含义,他们爱戴的先人就葬在天马山上,建马头墙有思念先人之意,更象征天马行空,寄寓一种夸姣的愿望。
Characteristic 1: Hui style landscape design, garden design, construction surface frugal, choose closed structure, the outside is solid and the inside is empty, with high external wall enclosure, the gate with flat Yixian Qingshi pillar as doorframe, the top of the house sealed fire wall. Concave and convex, the end of a horse shaped head shape, that is, horse head wall. This wall is built between houses and houses, so that fire paths between houses can be prevented and the fire spread can be prevented. Because the firewall is higher than the roof, it can be used as a guard against theft, burglar and wind protection. Firewall modelling is rich and varied, some are made of ladder, some are made of bow, stretch freely, the wall head for artistic treatment, constitute a rise of empty horse head wall. In the construction of Hui Dynasty, the horse-head wall has another meaning. Their beloved ancestors were buried in Tianma Mountain. The building of the horse-head wall has the intention of remembering the ancestors, and it also symbolizes that the horse is flying in the sky and expresses a kind of grand wish.
具体古建筑设计,古建筑修复,古建筑结构,修建构造
Specific ancient building design, ancient building restoration, ancient building structure, construction structure
徽派园林设计
从古民居的正门至天井的空间都称为门厅,它是整套住所的主体有些--大厅的一有些。它由正门、屏风、天井等组合而成,作为迎送宾客的留步之阶。因古时送宾客到此便可乘马乘轿,又称“轿厅”.古徽州文化兴盛,房主多儒雅气十足,不肯直接露出室内活动。因而门厅之间多设置一屏风,即中门,门外路过行人不会一眼望穿厅内陈设。正门的门框是由“黟县青”大理石砌筑而成,上有门罩,砖砌瓦覆雨檐,用砖雕斗拱挑出,因而更为广大。雨檐下方层层砌以砖雕,左右分挑出立体雕像的青砖浮雕,如持笔文昌、握剑武曲、八仙过海、蟠桃仙会等,周围又饰以百花、鸟兽等小浮雕为图画的花边。
The space from the main entrance to the patio of an ancient dwelling is called the hall, and it is the main body of the whole dwelling - some of the halls. It is composed of main doors, screens, patios and so on. It serves as a stepping stone for guests. Ancient Huizhou culture flourished, and the owner of the house was full of refinement, and refused to expose indoor activities directly. Therefore, more than one screen is set between the hall, that is, the middle door, pedestrians outside the door will not look through the hall furnishings. The main door frame is made of "Yixian Qing" marble masonry, with a door cover, brick tiles covered with rain eaves, with brick carving bucket arch out, thus more extensive. Under the eaves layers of brick carvings, left and right to pick out the three-dimensional statue of the green brick relief, such as Wenchang, sword-holding Wuqu, eight immortals across the sea, Pantao Xianhui, and so on, surrounded by a hundred flowers, birds and beasts and other small reliefs for the painting of lace.
特征二:大门不朝南开。常理坐北朝南是住所理想的取向,冬暖夏凉,夏天避开太阳直射,冬季又得到足够的日照。但西递大门都防止南向而开,首要原因是商业。在封建社会,经商被视为贱业。为了讨吉祥,西递居宅大门不只不朝南,而且特意在大门上方造一元宝型门罩,以图避邪招财。这变成徽商住所的一大特征,并演变为徽派民居修建形制。
Feature two: the gate does not go south. Normally sitting north and facing south is the ideal orientation of residence, warm in winter and cool in summer, avoid direct sunlight in summer, and get enough sunshine in winter. But the main reason for the Xidi gate is to prevent south. In feudal society, business is regarded as a cheap business. For the sake of good luck, the gate of Xidi residence not only faces south, but also specially constructs a dollar-shaped door cover above the gate in order to avoid evil and attract wealth. This became a major feature of Huizhou merchants' residence and evolved into the construction of Huizhou residence.
构成原由
Make up the cause
听说,周朝天子灭商朝后,周公把商的遗民迁到洛阳,这些遗民失去了土地,无以为生,只得靠做小生意养家糊口,后变成专业职业称为商业,经营者因而被称为商人。西递胡氏家庭兴隆,得益于经商,在所建宅第上尽显商人财大气粗的气势,但忠诚笃信古代传统的“商家大门不宜南向”的周易之说。由于在阴阳五行中,商属金,南向属火,火克金,商人宅门朝南就犯忌了。如此,谁情愿大门朝南招来横祸呢?况且,他们的先人就曾因而遭致火灾,住所被焚。传说仕亨公妯娌不合。当仕亨公新第完工之日,其弟媳着红衣红裙去贺喜,以咒遭血光之灾。工作凑巧,公然仕亨公府不久遭受火灾,被烧个精光。而仕亨公住所门恰是朝南。
It is said that after the Emperor of the Zhou Dynasty destroyed the Shang Dynasty, the Duke of the Zhou Dynasty moved the survivors of the Shang Dynasty to Luoyang. These survivors lost their land and could not make a living. They had to make small businesses to support their families. Later, they became professionals and became businessmen. Xidihu family prosperity, thanks to business, in the house built to show the wealth of the businessmen, but faithfully believe in the ancient tradition of "the door of the businessmen should not be southward" Zhouyi. In the Yin Yang and the five line, merchants are gold, and the south is fire, fire is gold, and businessmen face south. So who would prefer the south side of the gate to bring unexpected calamity? Besides, their ancestors had been caught in a fire and their homes burned. It is said that Shi Heng and his wife are different. When Shi Heng Gong completed the new completion date, his sister-in-law went to the red dress and red skirt to congratulate him, and the curse was bloodshed. As luck would have it, the blatant official house was soon burned down. The gate of Shi Heng Gong residence is facing south.
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