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小型建筑如何打造出徽派建筑的神韵?
发布时间:2019-03-29
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来源: http://www.sdhuiyun.com
1,徽派建筑的特征主要表现在村落民居、祠堂庙宇、牌坊和园林等建筑实体中。其作风为鲜明的是大量遗存的传统民居村落,从选址、设计、外型、构造、规划到装饰美化都集中反映了徽州的山地特征、意愿和地域美饰倾向。
1. The characteristics of Hui architecture are mainly embodied in such architectural entities as village dwellings, ancestral temples, archways and gardens. Its style is distinct as a large number of traditional residential villages. From site selection, design, appearance, structure, planning to decoration and beautification, it reflects the mountain characteristics, willingness and regional decoration tendency of Huizhou.
2,徽州村落的选址大多严厉遵照中国传统规则停止,山水环抱,山秀,追求理想的人居环境和山水意境,被誉为“中国画里的乡村”。受传统“水为财源”观念的影响,寄命于商的徽州人特别注重村落的“水口”,建构了一些独具特征的水口园林。徽式宅第结体多为多进院落式汇合方式(小型者多为三合院式),表现了徽州人“聚族而居”的特性。普通均坐北朝南,倚山面水,讲求价值。规划以中轴线对称分列,面阔三间,中为厅堂,两侧为厢房,厅堂前方称天井,采光通风。院落相套,培养出纵深自足性家庭的生活空间。民居外观整体性和美感很强,高墙封锁,马头翘角,墙线参差有致,黑瓦白墙,色泽典雅大方。装饰方面,清砖门罩、石雕漏窗、木雕楹柱与建筑物融为一体,使房屋精巧如诗,堪为徽式宅第的一大特征。徽州的祠堂和牌坊也是徽派建筑中的重要建筑方式。村皆有祠,祠普通均范围庞大,华丽堂皇。而散缀各地的各式牌坊,则是古代徽州景观的重要组成局部。
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2. The site selection of Huizhou villages mostly strictly abides by the traditional Chinese rules, surrounded by mountains and rivers, beautiful mountains and rivers, pursuing ideal living environment and artistic conception of mountains and rivers, and is known as "the village in Chinese painting". Influenced by the traditional concept of "water is the source of wealth", Huizhou people who were destined to merchants paid special attention to the "water mouth" of villages and constructed some unique waterway gardens. The combination of Huizhou-style residences is mostly multi-entrance courtyard type (the small ones are mostly triad courtyard type), which shows the characteristics of Huizhou people living together. Normally, they are sitting in the north and facing the south, relying on mountains and rivers, and stressing value. The plan is divided symmetrically by the central axis, with three rooms in a wide area, with halls in the middle and chambers on both sides. The front of the hall is called a patio, with lighting and ventilation. The courtyards are suited to cultivate the living space of self-sufficient families in depth. The appearance of the dwellings is integrated and aesthetic, with high walls blocked, Horsehead warped, uneven wall lines, black tiles and white walls, elegant and generous color. In terms of decoration, clean brick doors, stone carved leaky windows, wood carved crotch columns and buildings are integrated, making the house as exquisite as poems, which can be regarded as a major feature of Hui-style residence. Ancestral halls and archways in Huizhou are also important architectural styles in Huizhou architecture. All villages have ancestral halls, which are generally large and magnificent. The various archways scattered all over the country are an important part of the ancient Huizhou landscape.
3,作为传统的建筑流派,徽派建筑不断坚持着其融古雅、简约、华丽于一体的共同艺术作风。
3. As a traditional school of architecture, Hui architecture persists in its common artistic style, which integrates ancient elegance, simplicity and gorgeousness.
4,具有徽派作风的砖雕、石雕、木雕三种民间雕琢工艺的简称。徽派三雕以歙县、黟县、婺源县为典型,保管也相对较好。主要用于民居、祠堂、庙宇、园林等建筑的装饰,以及古式家具、屏联、笔筒、果盘等工艺雕琢。三雕的历史源于宋代,至明清而达极盛。明代雕琢粗矿、古朴,普通只要平雕和浅浮雕,借助于线条外型,而缺乏透视变化,但强调对称,富于装饰兴趣。清代雕琢细腻蘩复,构图、规划吸收了新安画派的表现手法,考究艺术美,多用深浮雕和圆雕,倡导镂空效果,有的镂空层次多达十余层,亭台楼谢,树本山水,人物走兽,花鸟虫鱼集于同一画面,玲现剔透,参差有致,层次清楚,栩栩如生,显现了雕琢工匠高超的艺术才干。
4. Brick carving, stone carving and wood carving with Hui style are abbreviations of three folk carving techniques. The three carvings of Hui School are typical of Shexian, Yixian and Wuyuan counties, and they are relatively well preserved. Mainly used for decoration of dwellings, ancestral halls, temples, gardens and other buildings, as well as ancient furniture, screen couplets, penholders, fruit trays and other crafts. The history of the three carvings originated in the Song Dynasty and reached its peak in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Ming Dynasty carved rough ore, simple, ordinary as long as flat and shallow relief, with the help of line shape, but lack of perspective change, but emphasize symmetry, rich in decorative interest. In Qing Dynasty, Xin'an Painting School's technique of expression was absorbed in its composition and planning, and its artistic beauty was studied. Deep relief and round sculpture were used to advocate hollow-out effect. Some hollow-out layers were as many as ten layers, pavilions and terraces were thanked, tree-based landscapes, figures, animals, flowers, birds, insects and fish gathered in the same picture. They were exquisite, varied, clear and vivid, showing the excellent carving craftsmen. Artistic talent.
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