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徽派建筑风格主要体现在哪些地方?
发布时间:2019-01-31
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来源: http://www.sdhuiyun.com
一、徽派建筑风格  徽派建筑主要流行于徽州六县与严州大部以及周边徽语区(如安徽旌德、石台,江西浮梁、德兴等)。以砖、木、石为原料,以木构架为主。梁架多用料硕大,且注重装饰。还广泛采用砖、木、石雕,表现出高超的装饰艺术水平。  徽派建筑与其地区汉族传统民居的都有共同的特点,聚族而居,坐北朝南,注重内采光;以木梁承重,以砖、石、土砌护墙;以堂屋为中心,以雕梁画栋和装饰屋顶、檐口见长。
First, Huizhou style of architecture is mainly popular in six counties of Huizhou and most of Yanzhou and the surrounding Huizhou language areas (such as Peide, Shitai, Fuliang, Dexing, etc.). Bricks, wood and stone are used as raw materials, and wooden frames are used as main materials. The girder frame is made of huge materials and pays attention to decoration. Bricks, wood and stone carvings are also widely used, showing a high level of decorative art. Hui-style buildings have common characteristics with the traditional houses of the Han nationality in their area. They live together, sit in the north and face the south, pay attention to internal lighting; take wooden beams as load-bearing, brick, stone and earth as wall protection; take hall houses as the center, carve beams, painted roofs and decorative roofs as well as eaves as cornices.
徽派建筑集徽州山川风景之灵气,融汉族风俗文化之精华,风格独特,结构严谨,雕镂精湛,不论是村镇规划构思,还是平面及空间处理、建筑雕刻艺术的综合运用都充分体现了鲜明的地方特色。尤以民居、祠堂和牌坊为典型,被誉为徽州古建三绝,为中外建筑界所重视和叹服。
Huizhou style architecture combines the spirit of Huizhou landscape, the essence of Han culture, unique style, rigorous structure and exquisite carving. Whether it is the planning concept of villages and towns, or the comprehensive application of plane and space treatment, architectural carving art, it fully reflects the distinct local characteristics. Especially the most typical folk houses, ancestral halls and archways, known as the three outstanding ancient buildings in Huizhou, are valued and admired by the Chinese and foreign architectural circles.
二、特征  徽派建筑还广泛采用砖、木、石雕,表现出高超的装饰艺术水平。砖雕大多镶嵌在门罩、窗楣、照壁上,在大块的青砖上雕刻着生动逼真的人物、虫鱼、花鸟及八宝、博古和几何图案,极富装饰效果。木雕在古民居雕刻装饰中占主要地位,表现在月梁头上的线刻纹样,平盘斗上的莲花墩,屏门隔扇、窗扇和窗下挂板、楼层拱杆栏板及天井四周的望柱头等。内容广泛,多人物、山水、花草、鸟兽及八宝、博古。
Second, the characteristic Hui style buildings also widely use brick, wood and stone carvings, showing a high level of decorative art. Brick carvings are mostly inlaid on the door cover, window lintel and wall. On the large green bricks, vivid figures, insects, fish, flowers and birds, Babao, Bogu and geometric patterns are carved, which are very decorative. Wood carving occupies a major position in the carving decoration of ancient folk houses. It is shown in the line carving pattern on the head of the moon beam, lotus piers on the flat dish bucket, screen doors, partitions, window panels and hanging panels under windows, arch railings on the floor, and pillars around the patio. It contains a wide range of characters, landscapes, flowers and plants, birds and animals, Babao and Bogu.
徽派园林设计
题材众多,有传统戏曲、民间故事、神话传说和渔、樵、耕、读、宴饮、品茗、出行、乐舞等生活场景。手法多样,有线刻、浅浮雕、高浮雕透雕、圆雕和镂空雕等。其表现内容和手法因不同的建筑部位而各异。这些木雕均不饰油漆,而是通过高品质的木材色泽和自然纹理,使雕刻的细部更显生动。石雕主要表现在祠堂、寺庙、牌坊、塔、桥及民居的庭院、门额、栏杆、水池、花台、漏窗、照壁、柱础、抱鼓石、石狮等上面。内容多为象征吉祥的龙风、仙鹤、猛虎、雄狮、大象、麒麟、祥云、八宝、博古和山水风景、人物故事等,主要采用浮雕、透雕、圆雕等手法,质朴高雅,浑厚潇洒。
There are many themes, such as traditional opera, folk tales, myths and legends, fishing, woodcutting, farming, reading, banqueting, tea tasting, travel, music and dance. There are various techniques, such as wire engraving, shallow relief, high relief carving, round carving and hollow carving. Its contents and techniques vary from building to building. These wood carvings are not painted, but through high quality wood color and natural texture, the details of the carvings are more vivid. Stone carvings are mainly displayed in ancestral halls, temples, archways, towers, bridges and courtyards, doorways, railings, pools, flower beds, leaky windows, walls, pillar foundations, drum-holding stones, stone lions and so on. The contents are mostly symbolic of auspicious dragons, cranes, tigers, lions, elephants, unicorns, auspicious clouds, eight treasures, Bogu and landscape scenery, character stories, etc., mainly using relief, carving, round carving and other techniques, simple and elegant, simple and unrestrained.
三、格局
Three, pattern
传统徽州宅居基本的格局是三间式,一般为三开间、内天井,民间俗称为“一颗印”。平面布局对称,中间厅堂,两侧厢房,楼梯在厅堂前后或在左右两侧。入口处形成一内天井,作采光通风用。在此基础上建筑纵横发展、组合,可形成四合式、大厅式和穿堂式等格局。
The most basic pattern of traditional Huizhou residence is three-bedroom, which is generally three-bedroom and inner courtyard. Folk custom is called "a seal". The plane layout is symmetrical, with the middle hall, two side compartments and stairs on the front and back of the hall or on the left and right sides. An inner patio is formed at the entrance for lighting and ventilation. On this basis, the vertical and horizontal development and combination of buildings can form four-in-one, hall-style and hall-style patterns.
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