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园林建筑工程水景中桥的设计
发布时间:2019-01-23
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来源: http://www.sdhuiyun.com
步石
Footstone
又称汀步、跳墩子,尽管这是原始的过水形式,早被新技术所代替,但在园林中尚可运用发挥有情趣的跨水小景,使人走在汀步上有脚下清流游鱼可数的近水亲切感。汀步合适浅滩小溪跨度不大的水面。也有结合滚水坝体设置过坝汀步,但要注意安全。
Tingbu and jumping pier are also called. Although they are the most primitive forms of water-crossing and have been replaced by new technologies, they can still be used in gardens to give full play to the interesting cross-water scenery, so that people can walk in Tingbu with countless close-water intimacy of clean-flowing fish under their feet. Tingbu is the most suitable surface for small-span shoal streams. There is also a combination of rolling dam body set up over the dam step, but pay attention to safety.
梁桥
girder bridge
跨水以梁、独木桥是原始的梁桥。对园林中小河、溪流宽度不大的水面仍可运用。就是水面宽度不深的也可缔造桥墩构成多跨桥的梁桥。梁桥平整便于行走与通车[5].在依水景象的设计中,梁桥除起到安排交通外,还能与周围环境相结合,构成一种诗情画意的意境,耐人寻味。
Beams and single-timber bridges are the most primitive bridges across water. It can still be used on the surface of small rivers and streams in gardens with small widths. Even if the width of the water surface is not deep, piers can be built to form multi-span bridges. Beam bridge is smooth and easy to walk and traffic [5]. In the design of water scene, beam bridge can not only arrange traffic, but also combine with the surrounding environment to form a poetic and picturesque artistic conception, which is interesting.
园林建筑工程
拱桥
Arch Bridge
拱券是人用石材缔造大跨度工程的创造,在我国很早就有拱券的利用。拱桥的形式多样,有单拱、三拱到连续多拱,便利园林不同环境的要求而选用。在功能上又很习惯上面通行、下面通航的要求。拱桥在园林中更有独特造景效果。因此有“长虹偃卧,影子成环”的描绘。如北京的玉带桥、十七孔桥。玉带桥是西堤上唯一的高拱石桥,拱高而薄,恰如一条玉带横舞水面,它造型杂乱、结构精美,在水面上映出婀娜多姿的影子。
Arch coupon is the creation of large-span engineering with human stone. It has been used in our country for a long time. Arch bridges are of various forms, from single arch, three arch to continuous multi-arch, which are convenient for the selection of gardens in different environments. Functionally, they are used to the requirements of above and below navigation. Arch bridges have more unique landscaping effect in gardens. Therefore, there is a description of "Changhong sleeping in a circle of shadows". Such as the Jade Belt Bridge and the Seventeen-hole Bridge in Beijing. The Jade Belt Bridge is the only high arch stone bridge on the Xidi. Its arch is tall and thin. It is just like a jade belt dancing across the water. It has a messy shape and exquisite structure, reflecting a graceful shadow on the water.
浮桥
Pontoon Bridge
浮桥是在较宽水面通行的简略和临时性方法。它能够免去做桥墩根底等工程措施,它只用船或浮筒代替桥墩上架梁板用绳索拉固就成通行的浮桥。在依水景象的设计中,它起到多方面的效果,但其要点不在于安排交通。因为它固而不稳,人立其上有晃悠动乱之势,给人以不安的感觉,利用浮桥的不稳因素,能够与水的静态构成强烈的比照,更能激起人们勇于冒险、活跃奋进的进取心。
Floating bridge is a simple and temporary method for wide water surface. It can avoid engineering measures such as pier foundation and so on. It only uses boat or buoy instead of girder slab on pier and cable to fix it to become a viable pontoon bridge. In the design of water scenery, it has many effects, but its main point is not to arrange traffic. Because it is firm and unstable, people have the tendency of shaking and chaos on it, giving people a feeling of uneasiness. Using the unstable factors of floating bridge, it can make a strong contrast with the static state of water, and can stimulate people to take risks and be active and enterprising.
吊桥
Suspension Bridge
在急流深涧,高山峡谷,桥下没有建墩的条件,如我国西南地区,宜建吊桥。它能够大跨度的横卧水面,悬而不落[6].吊桥具有美丽的曲线,给人以轻盈之感。立于桥上,既可远眺,又可近观。轻盈的悬索吊桥随着我国科技开展,往后在依水景象的设计中,必将出现更多的具有美丽曲线、轻盈的吊桥。
In the deep stream of rapids, high mountains and canyons, there is no condition to build piers under bridges. For example, in the southwest of China, suspension bridges are most suitable. The suspension bridge has beautiful curves and gives people a sense of lightness. Standing on the bridge, you can see both from afar and from afar. With the development of science and technology in our country, more and more lightweight suspension bridges with beautiful curves will appear in the design of water scenery in the future.
亭桥与廊桥
Pavilion Bridge and Corridor Bridge
这类即有交通效果又有游憩功能与造景效果的桥,很合适园林要求。如北京颐和园西堤上建有幽风桥、镜桥、练桥、绿柳等亭桥。这些桥在长堤游览线上起着点景歇息效果,在远观上打破上堤水平线构图,有比照造景、分割水面层次效果[6].桂林七星岩的花桥,这一长的廊桥是通往公园进口第一个景象修建。扬州瘦西湖上的五亭桥是瘦西湖长轴上主景修建。
This kind of bridge, which has both traffic effect and recreational function and landscaping effect, is very suitable for garden requirements. For example, on the West embankment of the Summer Palace in Beijing, Pavilion bridges such as Youfeng Bridge, Jingqiao Bridge, Lianqiao Bridge and Greenwillow Bridge have been built. These bridges play a resting effect on the long dike tour line, breaking the horizontal line composition of the upper dike in the long view, having the effect of comparing the landscape and dividing the water level [6]. The flower bridge of Qixingyan, Guilin, is the first scene to be built at the entrance of the park. The Wuting Bridge on the Slender West Lake in Yangzhou is the main view on the long axis of the Slender West Lake.
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