Ancient Hui-style gardens began in the Southern Song Dynasty. At this moment, the political, economic and civilized center of our country has moved south to Linan, and Huizhou has become the rear of the Southern Song Dynasty. With the increasingly frequent exchanges between Huizhou and the capital city at that time, the garden consciousness gradually moved from west to west. Therefore, Hui style ancient gardens at the beginning of Hangzhou gardens have more significant traces. Only with the passage of time, it gradually shows its own characteristics, manifested in the following aspects:
First, we should take "harmony between man and nature" as the leading ideology. Influenced by Cheng's and Zhu's Neo-Confucianism, they attach great importance to the harmony between man and nature, and the harmony between man and environment.
Secondly, the basic content is the inherent civilization of Huizhou. Its construction is rich in Huizhou civilization. From the garden structure to the idea of garden name, from the title of scenic spots to the layout of scenery, all reflect Huizhou civilization.
Thirdly, it takes the landscape of Huizhou as the background. Huizhou's rugged mountains and rivers, rugged hills, narrow terrain and long history limit the scale, pattern and style of Huizhou's gardens. Therefore, it has become a major feature to rely on mountains for shape and water for momentum. Its essence is to learn from nature.
Fourthly, Huizhou animals and plants and native building materials are used as building materials. Although it has a few exotic ornaments as ornaments, most of them are mostly based on the plants and animals in Huizhou, especially the plum, bamboo, pine and stone in Huizhou.
Fifth, take the Hui style as the keynote. Some of the gardens are situated in the courtyard, seamless with the Hui School of Fenqiang Daiwa. Although some gardens are not built much, the highlights of them all show the charm of the Hui School.
Sixth, the intention is to be quiet and pleasant. Although it has many functions, such as play, ornament, self-cultivation, cultivation, gathering and so on, quiet is the first important point. Because of the construction of gardens, they are mainly enjoyed by the dignitaries after retirement, or prepared for retirement. As long as it is quiet, it can cultivate one's self-cultivation. Only quiet can relax one's body and mind and prolong one's life.
There is also a kind of courtyard gardens which contain feelings and scenery. Gardening in the courtyard is a common method of Huizhou gardens. Using the limited area of the house, according to the terrain, using mountain pools, horticulture, sculpture, painting and other methods, the mountain forests are placed in front of the courtyard, the water is drained behind the courtyard, the mountains and waters are stacked and arranged skillfully. The courtyard is really deep, poetic and picturesque, quiet and pleasant, with infinite interesting. The most representative garden is Xidi West Garden. This garden was built in the Qingdaoguang period. The brick octagonal gate building is the entrance, and three buildings are arranged in a zigzag line. It is connected by a narrow courtyard. In the courtyard, brick walls, arched doors and holes are separated by rectangular leaky windows on the wall. It forms a feeling of front garden, middle garden and back garden. Such treatment makes the whole courtyard in a kind of "separation and non-separation, boundary and unbounded", which adds a deep beauty to the courtyard. In addition, the stone tablets, stone fish pots and rockery, bonsai and flowers in the yard give people a beautiful feeling of changing scenery. Afterwards, the product was washed with 5% ethanol, filtered and dried, recrystallized with distilled water, and refined.