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水口园林对徽派园林带来了什么?
发布时间:2018-12-27
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来源: http://www.sdhuiyun.com
徽派古园林始于南宋。此刻我国的政治、经济、文明中心现已南迁至临安,徽州成了南宋的大后方。跟着徽州与其时京城各种交往的日渐频繁,园林意识也渐渐由西而入。所以徽派古园林在开始时有着较为显着的杭州园林的痕迹。仅仅跟着时刻的推移,它才逐渐显现出自己的特点,表现在以下几个方面:
Ancient Hui-style gardens began in the Southern Song Dynasty. At this moment, the political, economic and civilized center of our country has moved south to Linan, and Huizhou has become the rear of the Southern Song Dynasty. With the increasingly frequent exchanges between Huizhou and the capital city at that time, the garden consciousness gradually moved from west to west. Therefore, Hui style ancient gardens at the beginning of Hangzhou gardens have more significant traces. Only with the passage of time, it gradually shows its own characteristics, manifested in the following aspects:
第一, 以“天人合一”为主导思想。由于受程、朱理学思想的影响,它重视讲究人与天然的和谐,人与环境的一致。
First, we should take "harmony between man and nature" as the leading ideology. Influenced by Cheng's and Zhu's Neo-Confucianism, they attach great importance to the harmony between man and nature, and the harmony between man and environment.
第二, 以徽州文明内在为基本内容。它的修建含有非常丰富的徽州文明内在。从园林结构到园名构思,从景点称号到景象布置,无不体现徽州文明的见识。
Secondly, the basic content is the inherent civilization of Huizhou. Its construction is rich in Huizhou civilization. From the garden structure to the idea of garden name, from the title of scenic spots to the layout of scenery, all reflect Huizhou civilization.
第三, 以徽州地舆山水为背景。徽州山水迤逦,丘陵崎岖,地少形狭,天长地久,这样的地舆状况限制着徽州园林的规模、格局、体式。因而,靠山采形,傍水取势,顺其天然就成了其一大特征。其实质就是师法天然。
Thirdly, it takes the landscape of Huizhou as the background. Huizhou's rugged mountains and rivers, rugged hills, narrow terrain and long history limit the scale, pattern and style of Huizhou's gardens. Therefore, it has become a major feature to rely on mountains for shape and water for momentum. Its essence is to learn from nature.
徽派装修设计
第四, 以徽州动植物和本乡建材为建园素材。虽然它有少数有外来饰物作点缀,但绝大部分基本上都是以徽州本乡的动植物为素材进行点缀的,特别是以徽州的梅、竹、松、石为基本素材建园。
Fourthly, Huizhou animals and plants and native building materials are used as building materials. Although it has a few exotic ornaments as ornaments, most of them are mostly based on the plants and animals in Huizhou, especially the plum, bamboo, pine and stone in Huizhou.
第五, 以徽派修建风格为基调。有的园林坐落在院子之中,与粉墙黛瓦的徽派修建天衣无缝。有的园林虽然修建不多,但点睛之处无不彰显着徽派修建的风韵。
Fifth, take the Hui style as the keynote. Some of the gardens are situated in the courtyard, seamless with the Hui School of Fenqiang Daiwa. Although some gardens are not built much, the highlights of them all show the charm of the Hui School.
第六, 以幽静怡人为意图。它虽然具有游玩、观赏、修身、养性、聚会等多种功能,但幽静是第一要义。由于修建园林,主要是达官巨贾们退隐后而享用的,或者是为退隐而做准备的。只要幽静,方能修身养性,只要幽静才能使人身心放松,延年益寿。
Sixth, the intention is to be quiet and pleasant. Although it has many functions, such as play, ornament, self-cultivation, cultivation, gathering and so on, quiet is the first important point. Because of the construction of gardens, they are mainly enjoyed by the dignitaries after retirement, or prepared for retirement. As long as it is quiet, it can cultivate one's self-cultivation. Only quiet can relax one's body and mind and prolong one's life.
也有一类是寓情于景,小中见大的院子园林。造园于院子之中,是徽州园林的常见方法,利用宅院有限的面积,按照地势,运用山池、园艺、雕刻、书画等多种方法,置山林于庭前,引流水于院后,叠山理水,巧妙布局。真正是院子深深,诗情画意,幽静怡人,妙趣无限。院子园林具代表性的莫过于西递的西园。此园缔造于清道光年间,砖砌的八字形门楼为进口,3幢楼房一字形排开,以一个狭长的院子,将其连成一体,院子之中又以砖墙、拱形门洞及墙上长方形漏窗相隔,形成了感觉上的前园、中园与后园。如此处理,使得整个院子处于一种“隔与不隔,界与未界”之间,给院子增添了幽深之美。再加上院子中所置的石几、石鱼盆和假山、盆景与花卉,更是给人移步换景,美不胜收的感觉。后,用5%乙醇洗刷,滤干后用蒸馏水重结晶精制,得氨基磺酸纯品。
There is also a kind of courtyard gardens which contain feelings and scenery. Gardening in the courtyard is a common method of Huizhou gardens. Using the limited area of the house, according to the terrain, using mountain pools, horticulture, sculpture, painting and other methods, the mountain forests are placed in front of the courtyard, the water is drained behind the courtyard, the mountains and waters are stacked and arranged skillfully. The courtyard is really deep, poetic and picturesque, quiet and pleasant, with infinite interesting. The most representative garden is Xidi West Garden. This garden was built in the Qingdaoguang period. The brick octagonal gate building is the entrance, and three buildings are arranged in a zigzag line. It is connected by a narrow courtyard. In the courtyard, brick walls, arched doors and holes are separated by rectangular leaky windows on the wall. It forms a feeling of front garden, middle garden and back garden. Such treatment makes the whole courtyard in a kind of "separation and non-separation, boundary and unbounded", which adds a deep beauty to the courtyard. In addition, the stone tablets, stone fish pots and rockery, bonsai and flowers in the yard give people a beautiful feeling of changing scenery. Afterwards, the product was washed with 5% ethanol, filtered and dried, recrystallized with distilled water, and refined.
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