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徽派建筑风格的形成主要是依托什么?
发布时间:2018-12-24
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来源: http://www.sdhuiyun.com
徽派修建的风格特征上要体现在村落的民居修建上,从设汁、选址、造型、结构、布局到装修美化都集十地反映了徽州的土地特征、风水意愿和地域美饰倾向。所谓民居是指古时遗存的、相对于“官式做法”的民间居住房子,它与宫殿、府邮、坛庙、陵园修建不同,一般都选用较经济的手法,囚地制宜,因材致用,以满足生活及生产上的需求,其功能、形式、构造和用材相互适应,巧妙结合,各地民居又带有不同的人文特征,风格悬殊,丰厚多样而又淳朴天然。徽州修建之所以为世人注重,当是根据它的特征及其构成的历史原因和地理要素。
The style and characteristics of Huizhou style construction should be embodied in the construction of village dwellings. From juice setting, site selection, shape, structure, layout to decoration and beautification, it reflects Huizhou's land characteristics, geomantic desire and regional decoration tendency. The so-called dwelling house refers to the old folk dwelling house, which is different from the building of palaces, government posts, altar temples and cemeteries. Generally, it uses more economical methods, adapts to the conditions of prison and uses it according to its aptitude in order to meet the needs of life and production. Its functions, forms, structures and materials are adapted to each other and skillfully combined with each other. The dwelling houses in different places also have different humanities. Features, styles are different, rich and diverse, and simple and natural. The construction of Huizhou has attracted worldwide attention because of its characteristics, historical reasons and geographical elements.
首要,徽州村落民居修建的选址和规划,体现出依山傍水,随坡就势的格式,即使用天然的地势、地貌进行规划规划,经过适量选用花墙、漏窗、楼阁、天井等修建手法,沟通内外空间,以使房子群落都到达与环境巧妙结合的意境。因为徽州丘陵山地结构特别,群山环绕,川谷高低,峰峦掩映,山多而地少,岩谷数倍于土田.正所谓“七山一水一分田,一分路途和庄园”。
Above all, the site selection and planning of Huizhou village dwellings reflect the format of being close to the mountains and rivers and on the right side of the slope. Even if planning is carried out with natural topography and landform, through appropriate selection of construction techniques such as flower walls, leaky windows, pavilions and patios, internal and external space is communicated, so that the house community can reach the artistic conception of skillfully combining with the environment. Because the hilly and mountainous structure of Huizhou is special, surrounded by mountains, high and low valleys, covered by mountains and hills, there are more mountains and less land, and the rock valleys are several times as large as the earth fields. It is called "seven mountains, one water, one field, one road and manor".
徽派园林设计
因此,徽州村落视野都富有这种特别的山水意境,宛如一幅凝固的我国山水画和一曲中华民间音乐,正如有识之士所认定的那样,兼有山之静态与水之动态的交汇、山之封闭与水之敞开的互补。这就使得徽州民居村落,大都以天然山水为依托,注重地理环境的挑选,充分认识天然,服从:厂天然以致使用天然,而后源于天然,融入天然及改造天然。徽州丘陵地带,万山丛立,山就必定成了村落选址的首要构成要素;风俗认为“山厚人肥,山清人秀,山驻人宁”,所以,山之厚、清、驻等也就成了民居选址的约定规范了。一起,对水的需求及对水的防范,是村落选址的另一重要规范,“所谓水者,取其势之高燥,无使水近,亲肤而已,若水势委曲而又环向之,义其第—:义也。”
Therefore, the vision of Huizhou villages is rich in this special landscape artistic conception, just like a solidified Chinese landscape painting and a piece of Chinese folk music, as recognized by the people of insight, it combines the intersection of the static state of mountains and the dynamic state of water, the complementarity of the closure of mountains and the opening of water. This makes Huizhou residential villages, mostly based on natural mountains and rivers, pay attention to the selection of geographical environment, fully understand nature, obey: plant natural use of nature, and then from nature, into nature and natural transformation. In the hilly area of Huizhou, where there are many mountains, mountains must be the primary elements of village site selection. Customs believe that "thick mountains, rich people, beautiful mountains and peaceful mountain residents", so the thick mountains, clear mountains and residential areas have become the agreed norms of residential site selection. Together, the demand for water and the prevention of water are another important criterion for village site selection. "The so-called water person, taking the high and dry potential, does not make the water close to the skin, only if the water potential is tortuous and circumferential, its first meaning is righteousness."
这样,综合两个方面的规范要求是枕山、环水、面屏、朝阳,把村址和宅基挑选在相对稍高的台地、缓坡之上,随坡就势,因势利导,这样会使得既符合视野开阔即所谓“望向好”的要求,又能满足居住者生活的生态要素的要求。一般人都知道,影响人类生计的生态要素包括两大类:一是生物要素指生物资源、卫生、防卫等;另一对错生物要素指土地、阳光、空气、温度等。
In this way, the normative requirements of comprehensive two aspects are pillow hill, surround water, face screen and sunrise. The village site and house foundation are selected on relatively high platform and gentle slope, and the situation can be adjusted according to the situation. This will not only meet the requirements of broad vision, that is, the so-called "hope for better" but also meet the requirements of ecological elements of residents'lives. It is generally known that the ecological factors affecting human livelihood include two categories: one is biological factors referring to biological resources, health, defense and so on; the other is right and wrong biological factors referring to land, sunshine, air, temperature and so on.
徽州村落选址和民居择基都受天然条件约束,起先多源自其祖先根据背山面水这一抱负形式而择地营建的,正如清代乾隆年间修纂的《汪氏义门世谱·东岸家谱序》所说:“自古贤人之迁,必相其阴阳向背,察其山川局势。”因而,这在山岗丘陵为地貌特征的徽州,溪流、水塘遍及,供给厂选址择基的较多空间,符合背山面水就成为徽州村落的基本格式。这方面的比如还有很多,如方氏荷村派始祖见一处“阡陌纵横,山川灵秀,前有山峰耸但是特立,后有幽谷窈但是深藏,左右河水回环,绿林阴翳,遂慕山水之胜而卜居焉”。
Huizhou village site selection and housing base selection are constrained by natural conditions. At first, most of them originated from their ancestors'site selection and construction according to the ambitious form of backing mountains and rivers. As the preface of Wang's Yimen genealogy, Dongan genealogy, compiled during the Qianlong reign of the Qing Dynasty, said: "Since the ancient wise people moved, their Yin and Yang must be opposite and their mountain situation should be observed." Therefore, in Huizhou, where hills and hills are geomorphological features, streams and ponds are widespread, providing more space for the site selection of factories, and meeting the background of mountains and rivers becomes the most basic form of Huizhou villages. In this respect, there are many more, such as the ancestors of the Hecun School of Fang Shi saw a place where the mountains and rivers are very beautiful and there are towering peaks in front but special ones. After that, there are deep valleys but deep in the valleys. The rivers and rivers are circling, and the green forests are shady, so they Mu the victory of the mountains and rivers and divine their dwelling place.
所谓卜居是古代风水之说,确定居宅朝向、布局、营建的一种有封建迷信颜色择吉避凶的奥秘观念和技巧与法术。用自称新安朱熹这位末代理学大师的话“冀都天地间,好个大风水”来说,“古时建立村庄之际,乃依堪舆家之言,择吉星缠之厂而筑之,谓可永世和顺也。”而休宁的清代朴学大师戴震则说:“吾郡少平原旷野,依山而居,商贾东西行营于外,以就口食。然生民得山
The so-called divination is the ancient geomantic omen theory. It is a mysterious concept, skill and magic to determine the orientation, layout and construction of residences with feudal superstition and color to choose good luck and avoid bad luck. In the words of self-proclaimed Xin'an Zhuxi, the last master of acting science, "Jidu is between heaven and earth, a good geomantic omen", it is said that when villages were built in ancient times, they could be built in accordance with the words of public opinion, choosing the most auspicious factory entangled with stars, which is called eternal harmony and smoothness. Dai Zhen, a master of Park Studies in the Qing Dynasty in Xiuning, said, "In the desert of Shaoyuan Plain in Wuxian County, people live by mountains, and businessmen and businessmen operate outside to eat. Natural people get rid of mountains
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