Ancient Hui-style gardens began in the Southern Song Dynasty. At this time, China's political, economic and civilized center has moved south to Linan, Huizhou became the rear of the Southern Song Dynasty. With the increasing frequency of contacts between Huizhou and the capital city at that time, the garden consciousness gradually came from the west. Therefore, Hui-style ancient gardens have obvious traces of Hangzhou gardens at the beginning. Only with the passage of time, it gradually shows its own characteristics, manifested in the following aspects: the top, with "harmony between man and nature" as the dominant thinking. Influenced by Cheng and Zhu's Neo-Confucianism, it pays attention to the harmony between man and nature and the unity of man and environment. Secondly, the basic content is the inherent civilization of Huizhou.
Its construction is rich in Huizhou civilization. From the garden structure to the conception of garden name, from the title of scenic spots to the layout of scenery, all of them show the details of Huizhou civilization. Thirdly, it takes the geographical landscape of Huizhou as the background. Huizhou's rugged mountains and rivers, rugged hills, narrow terrain and long history limit the scope, format and style of Huizhou's gardens.
Therefore, it has become one of its major features to rely on mountains for shape, water for momentum, and obedience to its beauty. Its essence is to learn from nature. Fourthly, Huizhou animals and plants and native building materials are used as building materials. Although it has a few exotic ornaments as ornaments, most of them are basically based on the plants and animals in Huizhou, especially the plum, bamboo, pine and stone in Huizhou. Fifth, take the Hui style as the keynote. Some of the gardens are situated in the courtyard, seamless with the Hui School of Fenqiang Daiwa.
Although some gardens are not built much, the highlight of them is the obvious charm of the Hui School. Sixth, for the purpose of quiet and pleasant. Although it has many functions, such as playing, watching, self-cultivation, self-cultivation, gathering and so on, quiet is the most important part of the list. Because of the construction of gardens, they are mainly enjoyed by the dignitaries after retirement, or prepared for retirement. As long as it is quiet, it can cultivate one's self-cultivation. Only quiet can relax one's body and mind and prolong one's life.
There is also a kind of courtyard gardens which contain feelings and scenery. Gardening in the courtyard is a common method of Huizhou gardens. Using the limited area of the courtyard, according to the terrain, using mountain pools, horticulture, sculpture, painting and other methods, the forests are placed in front of the courtyard, the water is drained behind the courtyard, the mountains and waters are stacked, and the wonderful layout is arranged. It is the deep courtyard, with poems in it, quiet and pleasant, and infinitely interesting. The most representative garden is Xidi West Garden. The garden was built in the Qingdaoguang period. The brick octagonal gate building serves as the entrance, and three tall buildings are arranged in a zigzag form. It is connected into a narrow courtyard. In the courtyard, brick walls, arched doors and holes are separated from rectangular leaky windows on the wall, forming a sensory front garden, middle garden and back garden. Such treatment makes the whole courtyard in a kind of "separation and non-separation, boundary and unbounded", which adds a deep beauty to the courtyard.
In addition, the stone tablets, stone fish pots and rockery, bonsai and flowers in the yard give people a beautiful feeling of changing scenery. There is also a kind of government garden enjoyed by the government. This kind of garden is built by the government for its own use. Chinese traditional society pays attention to "learning while excelling is official". Feudal officials are mostly literati. Their aesthetic taste and literati mentality can be better reflected in the construction of the gardens in the government offices.
The sites of temples, temples and nunneries are generally between green hills and green waters, and their courtyards are influenced by the secular and external natural environment, and also used for garden-style layout. Shuikou is a scenic area where the ancient Huizhou people deliberately built trees, pavilions and ancient temples as the main contents of the village. It is the "gateway" and "soul" in the construction of Huizhou villages. The tree construction at the water mouth is clearly maintained in the clan regulations of the big clans in the village, and no one can destroy it at will. Therefore, although the Shuikou Garden has no wall maintenance, all villagers can consciously do their best to maintain it for their own safety and prosperity.
There are three main reasons why it is magnificent, exquisite and delicate. One is the beauty of Huizhou's landscape, which provides the possibility for its natural learning; the other is the rich civilization of Huizhou, which provides a fantastic idea for the construction of Huizhou garden; the third is the strong economic strength of Huizhou merchants, which provides a strong economic support for the construction of Huizhou garden. In this way, we can still enjoy such a rich heritage of prehistoric civilization today. In the early 1990s, a classical construction company in Shexian County, at the invitation of Goethe's hometown in Germany, created a Hui-style garden of Chunhua. Thus, the quiet and pleasant Huizhou ancient gardens are not only Huizhou, but also the Chinese nation and international.
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