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水口园林的设计及与徽派园林有哪些影响?
发布时间:2018-10-26
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来源: http://www.sdhuiyun.com
园林是指依据地形、地貌、水体等自然因素巧妙地布置建筑物、构筑物、动植物等所构成的完整统一的整体风景组合。它集自然风光与人文景观于一体,是人们游赏憩息场所。徽派古园林是我国江南园林的一个派生体系。它涵盖范围较广,既包括存在于徽州土地上的园林,同时也包括存在于徽州地域之外、以徽州文化理念为指导、供客居他乡的徽州人聚会或赏玩之用的具有徽派建筑风格的园林。
Garden refers to a complete and unified combination of landscape composed of buildings, structures, animals and plants, which are ingeniously arranged according to natural factors such as topography, landforms and water bodies. It combines natural scenery with human landscape, and it is a place for people to enjoy and rest. Huizhou ancient garden is a derivative system of Jiangnan gardens in China. It covers a wide range of gardens, including the gardens on Huizhou land, but also the gardens with Huizhou style which exist outside Huizhou area, guided by Huizhou cultural concepts and used for gathering or enjoying by Huizhou people living in other places.
所谓水口乃是“一方众水所总出处”。“凡水来处谓之天门,若水来不见其源流谓之天门开;水去处谓之地户,不见水去谓之地户闭。夫水本主财,门开则财来,户闭则财用不竭”,因而要留住财气,其去口宜关闭紧密。为此,除选好水口位置多选于山脉转折、犬牙交错或两山夹峙、清流环绕之处以外,还须建筑桥台、楼塔等物,增加水口的锁钥之势。
The so-called "Shuikou" is "the source of the water of one side". "Where water comes, the gate of heaven is open, if water does not come, the gate of heaven is open; wherever water goes, the door of heaven is closed. When the door opens, the money will come, but when the door closes, the money will be exhausted. Therefore, to retain the wealth, the mouth should be closed tightly. For this reason, besides choosing the location of the entrance to be located at the turning point of the mountain range, the crisscross of the dog's teeth, or the place where the mountain confronts each other and the clear flow surrounds, it is also necessary to build bridges, towers and other objects to increase the potential of the key to the entrance.
手术室净化工程
普遍的作法是以桥作关锁,辅以树、亭、塘;在人文层次较高的地区则以文昌阁、奎星楼、文笔塔等高大建筑为主,辅以庙、亭、堤、桥、树等。平原地区的水口,则常在水中央立洲或作土墩,并在洲或墩上建庙或阁,如浙江乌青镇的分水墩上即建有阁。
The most common method is to use bridges as locks, supplemented by trees, pavilions and ponds; in areas with a higher cultural level, Wenchang Pavilion, Kuixing Tower, Wenbi Tower and other tall buildings, supplemented by temples, pavilions, dykes, bridges and trees. In plain areas, estuaries are often located in the middle of the water or used as earth mounds, and temples or pavilions are built on the continents or piers, such as on the piers of Wuqing Town in Zhejiang Province.
通过上述手法的运用以及长时间的苦心经营,风水水口地带往往成为山石犬牙交错、清流左环左绕、建筑各抱地势、树木郁郁葱葱的风景之地,人称“水口园林”。这种园林与一般意义的园林有所不同,它以其关锁缠绕、变化多端的真山真水为基础,因地制宜,就地取材,建筑质朴,山水天然,成为我国古代园林体系中一种独特的类型。
Through the use of the above-mentioned techniques and long-term painstaking management, Fengshui Estuary Zone is often a landscaping area with crisscross mountains and rocks, clear water left-hand circle, buildings and lush trees, known as "Shuikou Garden". This kind of gardens is different from the general sense of gardens. It has become a unique type of ancient Chinese gardens system, based on its intertwined and changeable real mountains and rivers, adapted to local conditions, local materials, simple buildings and natural landscapes.
在我国,要数徽州水口园林出色。由于“徵州各姓聚族而居”、“士夫巨室,多处于乡”,其根深蒂固的封建宗族观使他们乐意资助家乡的风水事业,从而有力推动了徽州的水口园林建设,形成了诸如歙县唐模村的檀干园”、棠樾的“西畴”以及黟县宏村的“南湖”等一大批著名水口园林,成为我国富有生命力的地方园林之一
In our country, the number of Huizhou Shuikou gardens is the best. Because of their deep-rooted feudal clan view, they were willing to support their hometown's geomantic omen, which effectively promoted the construction of Huizhou's Shuikou gardens, such as Tangan Garden in Tangmo Village of Shexian County, Xichou of Tanghui County and Hongcun of Yixian County. A large number of famous Shuikou gardens, such as Nanhu, have become one of the most vigorous local gardens in China.
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