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园林景观工程注意事项!
发布时间:2021-06-25
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来源: http://www.sdhuiyun.com
园林景观工程包括理山水、改造地形、辟筑道路、铺装场地、营造建筑、构筑工程设施、绿化栽植等多项内容。它从设计到施工阶段,都着眼于完工后的景观效果,总目标是为动植物创造良好的生存环境,创造园林式的绿化空间。现在园林工程的规模日趋大型化,在实际操作中往往将园林工程分成若干部分,分别委托给不同单位建造,因此在工程衔接及施工配合上常常存在问题。另外由于某些工程的特殊需要,植物在非栽植季节栽植的情况经常发生。笔者通过实践,提出以下在园林施工过程中应注意的几个问题,供同行借鉴。
Landscape engineering includes landscape management, terrain reconstruction, road construction, site paving, building, engineering facilities construction, greening and so on. From the design to the construction stage, it focuses on the landscape effect after the completion, and the overall goal is to create a good living environment for animals and plants and create a garden like green space. Now the scale of landscape engineering is becoming larger and larger. In practical operation, landscape engineering is often divided into several parts and entrusted to different units for construction. Therefore, there are often problems in project connection and construction cooperation. In addition, due to the special needs of some projects, plants are often planted in non planting seasons. Through practice, the author puts forward the following problems that should be paid attention to in the process of landscape construction, for peer reference.
1.原有树木的保存
1. Preservation of original trees
原有树木经确定需要保存,在土建施工以前,应采取措施暂时围起来,以避免由于踏实、焚烧造成损伤。为了防止机械损伤树干、树皮,应用草袋保护。特别是行道树,有时由于更换便道板或树穴板,需要做垫层,石灰和水泥都会造成土壤碱化,危害树木正常生长。因此在施工过程中先将树穴用土护起,做成高30厘米以下的土丘,避免石灰侵入。如果垫层需要浇水养护,应及时将树穴围起,或将水导向别处,禁止向树穴内浇含有石灰、水泥的水。
It is determined that the original trees need to be preserved. Before the civil construction, measures should be taken to temporarily surround them to avoid damage caused by steadiness and burning. In order to prevent mechanical damage to trunk and bark, straw bags should be used for protection. Especially for roadside trees, sometimes due to the replacement of sidewalk board or tree hole board, it is necessary to make cushion. Lime and cement will cause soil alkalization and endanger the normal growth of trees. Therefore, in the construction process, the tree hole should be protected with soil to make a mound less than 30 cm high to avoid lime invasion. If the cushion needs to be watered for maintenance, the tree hole shall be enclosed in time, or the water shall be directed elsewhere. It is forbidden to pour water containing lime and cement into the tree hole.
2.表土的采取和复原
2. Taking and restoration of topsoil
土壤是花草树木生长的基础,土壤中的土粒是构成团粒结构。适宜植物生长的团粒大小为1至5毫米,小于0.01毫米的孔隙,根毛不能侵入。一般情况下,表土具有大量养料和有用的土壤团粒结构,而在改造地形时,往往剥去表土,这样不能确保植物有良好的生长条件,因此应保存原有表土,在栽植时予以有效利用。
Soil is the basis for the growth of flowers and trees, and the soil particles in the soil constitute the aggregate structure. The size of aggregates suitable for plant growth is 1 to 5 mm, and the pores less than 0.01 mm can not be invaded by root hairs. In general, the topsoil has a lot of nutrients and useful soil aggregate structure, but in the transformation of the terrain, the topsoil is often stripped, which can not ensure that plants have good growth conditions. Therefore, the original topsoil should be preserved and effectively used in planting.
在表土的采取及其复原过程中,为了防止重型机械进入现场压实土壤,避免团粒结构遭到破坏,使用倒退铲车掘取表土,并按照一个方向进行,表土直接平铺在预定栽植的场地,不要临时堆放,防止地表固结。掘取、平铺表土作业不能在雨后进行,施工时的地面状况应该十分干燥,机械不得反复碾压。
In the process of taking and restoring topsoil, in order to prevent heavy machinery from entering the site to compact the soil and avoid the damage to the aggregate structure, the reverse forklift is used to dig the topsoil and carry out it in one direction. The topsoil is directly spread on the planned planting site instead of temporary stacking to prevent the surface from consolidation. Excavation and spreading of topsoil shall not be carried out after rain. The ground condition during construction shall be very dry, and repeated rolling by machinery is not allowed.
为了避免在复原的地面形成滞水层,平铺时要很好地耕耘。表土复原地的地基应耕起一定的厚度,以便和复原表土合为一体。采取深耕方法让土地风吹日晒,从而达到复原地膨软的目的,如果下层土质不好,应改良土壤,土壤改良深度以80至100厘米为宜(含表层)。
In order to avoid the formation of stagnant layer in the restored ground, it is necessary to plow it well. The foundation of topsoil restoration land should be ploughed up to a certain thickness so as to be integrated with the restoration topsoil. If the lower soil is not good, the soil should be improved, and the soil improvement depth should be 80 to 100 cm (including the surface).
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