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假山在园林中建造中起到的作用
发布时间:2019-08-21
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来源: http://www.sdhuiyun.com
中国园林是一种自然式山水园林,追求天然之趣是中国园林的基本特征。在造园中掇石叠山被列为造园的第一要素。由于私家园林空间的局限性,这就要求造园者充分利用空间造出咫尺山林的意境。
Chinese gardens are natural landscape gardens. Pursuing natural interest is the basic feature of Chinese gardens. In gardening, stacking hills with stones is listed as the first element of gardening. Because of the limitation of private garden space, it requires gardeners to make full use of space to create the artistic conception of mountains and forests.
水以山为面,水得山而媚;山者,天地之骨也。因而,造园必须有山,无山难以成园。自然园林往往选址于自然山水佳境,外借自然山林成景;私家园林往往建 在村镇人口密集之处,无山水可借假山假山,只得掇石叠山。因而,私家园林往往在不太大的空间范围内,再现自然山水之美,有不落人工斧凿痕迹,达到"虽由人 作,宛自天开",在咫尺之地,创造出"多方胜景,咫尺山林"的园林艺术。故山景是构成中国园林的五大要素之一,五大要素(叠山造景,理水造景,建筑造景, 花木造景,动物造景)。正如计成所说:"余七分之地,为垒土者四,高卑无论,栽竹相宜"。
Water is facing the mountains, and the water is beautiful; the mountains are the bones of heaven and earth. Therefore, there must be mountains in gardening, and it is difficult to build a garden without mountains. Natural gardens are often situated in natural scenic spots, borrowing natural mountains and forests to create scenery; private gardens are often built in densely populated villages and towns, no mountains and rivers can borrow rockeries, so they have to lay stones on top of mountains. As a result, private gardens often reappear the beauty of natural landscapes in a small space, with artificial axes and chisels, so as to create the garden art of "multi-scenic spots, close to mountains and forests" in a close space. Therefore, mountain scenery is one of the five major elements of Chinese gardens, including mountain overlapping, water management, architecture, flowers and trees, and animals. As Jicheng said, "The remaining seven parts of the land are fortified by four people. It is appropriate to plant bamboo whether it is high or low."
正是这些特性,才表达出园林中山景的无穷魅力。作为园林中独特一景——山景,与水景一样有着它独特的观赏价值。从我国现存的皇家园林到私家园林,无一 例外的都有假山的堆筑,石质假山和土质假山的堆筑,以它特有的美的方式表达出来。在自然式园林中占据着重要的地位。它造形多样,易于和周围景物协调统一, 同时它灵活,巧于变化,丰富了园林的景观,增加了园林空间和层次感。假山堆筑的好坏直接影响着全园的景观。假山堆筑与风景园林的关系是值得每个设计者和造 园家耗费精力、气力去追求、探讨的课题。
It is these characteristics that express the infinite charm of Zhongshan landscape in gardens. As a unique landscape in gardens, mountain scenery, like water scenery, has its unique ornamental value. From the existing imperial gardens to private gardens, there are no exceptions to the construction of rockeries, rockeries and earth rockeries, which are expressed in its unique way of beauty. It occupies an important position in natural gardens. It has various shapes and is easy to coordinate with the surrounding scenery. At the same time, it is flexible and flexible, which enriches the landscape of the garden and increases the sense of space and level of the garden. The quality of rockery construction directly affects the landscape of the whole garden. The relationship between rockery piling and landscape architecture is a topic worth pursuing and discussing by every designer and gardener.
园林建筑工程
假山能组织划分、分隔空间
Rockery can organize and divide space
利用假山大型建筑物特性对园林空间进行分隔和划分,将空间分成大小不同、形状各异、富于变化的各种空间形态。通过假山的穿插、分隔、夹拥、围合、聚汇,在假山区可以创造出山路的流动空间、山坳的闭合空间、山洞的拱穹空间、峡谷的纵深空间等各具特色的空间形式。假山还能够将游人的视线或视点引到高处或低处,创造仰视和俯视空间景象。
Based on the characteristics of large-scale buildings in rockery, the garden space is divided into various space forms with different sizes, shapes and changes. Through the intersection, separation, clamping, enclosure and convergence of rockery, the flowing space of mountain road, closed space of mountain depression, arch space of cave and deep space of Canyon can be created in rockery area. The rockery can also bring visitors'sight or point of view to high or low places, creating a space scene of looking up and down.
假山能因地制宜、协调环境
Rockery can adjust measures to local conditions and coordinate environment
园林假山能够提供的环境类型比平坦地形要多得多。在塑石假山区,不同坡度、不同坡向、不同光照条件、不同土质、不同通风条件的情况随处可寻,这就给不同生态习性的多种植物都提供了众多的良好的生长环境条件,有利于提高假山区的生态质量和植物景观质量。
Landscape rockery can provide much more types of environment than flat terrain. In the plastic rocky pseudo-mountain area, the conditions of different slope, different slope direction, different illumination conditions, different soil quality and different ventilation conditions can be found everywhere, which provides many good growth environment conditions for various plants with different ecological habits, and is conducive to improving the ecological quality and plant landscape quality of the pseudo-mountain area.
塑石假山是造景小品、点缀风景
Stone-moulding rockery is a landscape sketch and ornament
假山与石景景观是自然山地景观在园林中的艺术再现。在庭院中、园路边、广场上、水池边、墙角处,甚至在屋顶花园等多种环境中,假山和石景还能作为园林小品,用来点缀风景、增添情趣,起到造景与点景的作用。自然界的奇峰异石、悬崖峭壁、层峦叠嶂、深峡幽谷、泉石洞穴、海岛石礁等景观形象都可以通过塑石假山石景在园林中再现出来。
Rockery and stone landscape are the artistic reproduction of natural mountain landscape in gardens. In the courtyard, garden roadside, square, pool side, wall corner, even in the roof garden and other environments, rockery and stone scenery can also be used as garden sketches to embellish the landscape, add interest, play the role of landscape and landscape. The natural landscape images of exotic peaks, cliffs, mountains, deep canyons, spring caves, islands and reefs can be reproduced in the garden through the stone-moulded rockery rockscape.
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