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如何建立徽派文化街巷及村落的建筑?
发布时间:2019-04-29
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来源: http://www.sdhuiyun.com
徽州的街巷多半不是平直的,穿透的间隔不远。不同走向的街巷交错成网状的交通。不迷失其中需求依托街巷中的标志,在此一块石头、一眼井都是人们定位的标志。另外,徽州街巷序列自身也能够构成方向感,它是主街一巷道一次巷道的环状多级网络系统。徽州街巷疏密有致,宽窄变化呈现出一种舒缓的状态,所以连续性好,而且表现出变化多样的特性。
The streets and lanes of Huizhou are mostly not straight, and the distance between them is not far. The streets and lanes of different directions interlace into a network of traffic. Don't lose sight of the signs in the streets and alleys, where a stone and a well are the signs of people's positioning. In addition, Huizhou Street and Lane Sequence itself can also form a sense of direction, which is a ring multi-level network system of the main street, one lane and one lane. Huizhou streets and lanes are dense and compact, and the change of width and narrowness shows a relaxed state, so they have good continuity and diverse characteristics.
街巷穿插构成节点,街巷的起迄也构成节点。节点可分出层次,普通的小节点只是巷道的转机和衔接点,而大的节点可开展成中心、小广场。起始点是街巷开端的序幕,多做高差变化,有很强的标志性和导向性。街巷的交汇点使道路衔接、转机,给人以方向。交汇点根据整个街巷的空间需求有疏有密,使街巷既统一连续又变化丰厚。交汇点尺寸扩展还能够构成各种各样的中心,如生活中心、祭奠中心、交往中心等。中心空间的豁然很好地调理了巷道整体的封锁与幽静感。
Streets and lanes intersect to form nodes, and the beginning and end of streets and lanes also constitute nodes. Nodes can be divided into layers. Ordinary small nodes are only turning points and connecting points of roadways, while large nodes can be developed into centers and small squares. The starting point is the prelude of the beginning of the streets and lanes. It has a strong landmark and guidance to make more height difference changes. The intersection of streets and lanes makes the roads connect and turn around, giving people direction. The intersection points are sparse and dense according to the space demand of the whole street and lane, which makes the street and lane unified, continuous and varied. The expansion of intersection size can also form various centers, such as life center, Memorial center, communication center and so on. The sudden appearance of the central space well regulates the overall blockade and quiet feeling of the roadway.
徽派园林设计
由传统民居集聚而成的徽州村落,交融于山水之间,或背山临水,或依山跨水,或枕山面水。村落普通都是座落在缓坡上,随着地形、道路方向逐渐延伸。从徽州传统村落总体来看,都是山峦为溪水的骨架,溪水是村落的血脉。房屋群落与四周环境巧妙分离,村落顺溪水走向展开,构成漂亮的村镇风貌。
Huizhou villages, which are gathered by traditional dwellings, are blended between mountains and rivers, either backed by mountains and rivers, or crossed by mountains and rivers, or pillowed by mountains and rivers. Villages are usually located on gentle slopes, with the gradual extension of the terrain and road direction. Generally speaking, the traditional villages in Huizhou are the backbone of mountains and streams, which are the blood of villages. The house community is cleverly separated from the surrounding environment, and the villages move along the stream, forming a beautiful style of villages and towns.
徽州村落总的来说呈现出对外封锁的形态,其规划主要有三种方式:一种是线型规划。这种规划经过沿巷道的建筑群完成,或者经过各建筑群的轴线关系延伸。线型规划总有一条主要干线,序列感强,民居普通均可得到良好的朝向与景面。
Generally speaking, Huizhou villages show the form of external blockade. There are three main ways of planning: one is linear planning. This kind of planning is accomplished by building groups along the roadway, or by extending the axis relationship of each building group. Line planning always has a main trunk line, strong sense of sequence, common residential can get a good orientation and landscape.
线型规划当主干线过长时,交通、生活稍有不便。第二种是散点型规划。在地形复杂的山地地段环境中,民居各处于适合地带,呈散点状。散点型规划可使建筑隐于山林,有利于坚持自然风貌,很合适于小自然村的方式,如婆源上晓起。但此种方式有时显得混乱,各户联络不够严密。第三种是集聚型规划。它适于范围不等的各种村镇。这种规划方式占地少、紧凑,而且由于建筑集中,封锁性较强,如黯县屏山。
When the trunk line is too long, transportation and life are a little inconvenient. 第二种是散点型规划。 In the mountainous environment with complex terrain, the dwellings are in suitable zones and scattered. Scattered planning can hide the buildings in the mountains and forests, which is conducive to upholding the natural style and features, and is very suitable for the way of small natural villages, such as Poyuan Shangxiao. But this method sometimes appears confused, and the contact between households is not tight enough. The third one is agglomeration planning. It is suitable for all kinds of villages and towns. This kind of planning method occupies less land and is compact, and because of the centralized buildings, the blockade is strong, such as Huxian Pingshan.
在皖南古民居到新民居的演化过程中,平面型制的变化,装饰的简化,建筑新资料的运用等,这是人们不断积极努力探究重生活的热情和自然发明力的表现,也是我们应该正视和学习的中央。地域更新是不可阻挠的历史潮流,建筑文化的不时开展创新将是历史的必然。随着社会的开展、科技的进步,人们的生活方式也在发作转变。徽州民居作为徽派建筑文化的重要载体,它的更迭通知我们创新并不是丢弃传统,相反只要不时的开展创新才是对传统的继承和维护。
In the process of evolution from ancient dwellings to new dwellings in Southern Anhui, the changes of plane type, simplification of decoration, application of new building materials, etc. are the manifestations of people's enthusiasm and natural inventiveness to explore life, and also the central place we should face up to and learn from. Regional renewal is an irresistible trend of history, and it is inevitable that architectural culture should be innovated from time to time. With the development of society and the progress of science and technology, people's way of life is also changing. As an important carrier of Huizhou architectural culture, the change of Huizhou folk houses tells us that innovation is not to abandon tradition, on the contrary, as long as innovation is carried out from time to time, it is the best inheritance and maintenance of tradition.
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