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中式古建筑的六派之美的展现
发布时间:2019-04-17
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来源: http://www.sdhuiyun.com
千百年来,由于中国宽广的版图,招致人们的生活习气开展出各地独有的特征,也就在这片大地上留下了许多地域性的古建筑。交融了设计学、美学和哲学的中国古建,是中华文化的重要文化遗产。
For thousands of years, because of the vast territory of China, people's living habits have developed their unique characteristics, leaving many regional ancient buildings on this land. Chinese ancient architecture, which combines design, aesthetics and philosophy, is an important cultural heritage of Chinese culture.
中式建筑目前主要分为六大派系,分别是:皖派、闽派、京派、苏派、晋派和川派。它们或精致,或安静,或威严。在这六种作风的建筑中,有没有你家乡的沉淀?你又独爱哪一种呢?
At present, Chinese architecture is mainly divided into six factions: Anhui School, Fujian School, Beijing School, Soviet School, Jin School and Sichuan School. They are delicate, quiet or dignified. In these six styles of architecture, is there any precipitation in your hometown? Which one do you like best?
京派:庄严庄严 对称第一
Beijing School: Solemn Symmetry First
今天的北京,那种对称严厉,泾渭清楚的豆腐块式城市规划是不得人心。其实早在古代,北京的规划就是如此,这种“强迫症式”的对称美学,正是中国人从古至今用以表达庄严和权威为简约明了的建筑言语。
Today's Beijing, the symmetrical and rigorous, well-defined tofu block city planning is unpopular. In fact, as early as ancient times, Beijing's planning is like this. This symmetric aesthetics of "obsessive-compulsive disorder" is the most concise architectural language used by Chinese people to express solemnity and authority from ancient times to present.
一同赏析中式古建筑,六个派系共同之美
Appreciation of Chinese Ancient Architecture and the Beauty of Six Factions
具代表性的,当然是曾经年逾600岁的故宫。而坊间的各式“四合院”,不管是三四进的大户人家,还是一进的民居小院,都像一个微缩的故宫,彰显着京派建筑的大气。
The most representative is, of course, the Forbidden City, which was over 600 years old. All kinds of quadrangles in the workshop are like a miniature palace, which shows the atmosphere of Beijing architecture, whether they are big families or small residential courtyards.
一同赏析中式古建筑,六个派系共同之美
Appreciation of Chinese Ancient Architecture and the Beauty of Six Factions
置身院中,院落宽绰疏朗,四面房屋独立,每一处雕饰,每一笔彩绘,都寓意着幸福、美妙、富有、不祥。
In the courtyard, the courtyard is spacious and sparse, the houses on all sides are independent, every sculpture and every painting implies happiness, beauty, wealth and ominousness.
皖派:砖雕门楼 青瓦白墙
 
Anhui School: Brick-carved Gateway Tower, Green-tiled White Wall
皖派建筑的尊贵,源于安徽居民厚重的文化沉淀。青瓦白墙,砖雕门楼是它的主要特征,往常存留的大量民居、祠堂和牌坊在全国出名遐迩,是中囯南方民居的典型。
The dignity of Anhui architecture originates from the heavy cultural precipitation of Anhui residents. Green tiles and white walls, brick doors are its main characteristics. A large number of residential buildings, ancestral halls and archways are well-known throughout the country. They are typical of the residential buildings in the south of Zhongyuan.
一同赏析中式古建筑,六个派系共同之美
Appreciation of Chinese Ancient Architecture and the Beauty of Six Factions
明朝戏曲家汤显祖就写诗道“终身痴绝处,无梦到徽州”。可见安徽的地域文化对时期的影响。
Tang Xianzu, a Ming Dynasty dramatist, wrote poems that he had never dreamed of Huizhou. This shows the influence of Anhui's regional culture on the period.
一同赏析中式古建筑,六个派系共同之美
Appreciation of Chinese Ancient Architecture and the Beauty of Six Factions
徽派建筑是广为人知的皖派分支,2000年时列入“世界遗产名录”。“四水归堂”和“马头墙”是徽派建筑鲜明的特性。
Hui-style architecture is the most well-known branch of Anhui School, which was listed in the World Heritage List in 2000. The most distinct characteristics of Hui architecture are "four rivers returning to the hall" and "horsehead wall".
苏派:山环水绕 曲径通幽
Su school: winding paths around mountains and rivers lead to seclusion
谈及苏派建筑,大多数人首先会想到的是苏州园林。园林本是建筑中的一系旁支,但唯有苏式建筑能把这段旁支,开展成一门如此成熟的建筑艺术,让一切中外园林都望尘莫及。
中式装修设计
When it comes to Soviet architecture, the first thing most people think about is Suzhou gardens. Garden is originally a branch of architecture, but only Soviet architecture can develop this branch into such a mature architectural art, so that all Chinese and foreign gardens are beyond expectation.
一同赏析中式古建筑,六个派系共同之美
Appreciation of Chinese Ancient Architecture and the Beauty of Six Factions
脊角高翘的屋顶,江南风姿的走马楼,辉映着迂回蜿蜒的流水,低调外型门廊与小道,有一种“曲径通幽处,禅房花木深”的闲适,让人霎时放下忧虑。
The roofs with high ridges and the walking towers in the south of the Yangtze River reflect the winding water, the low-key exterior porches and lanes. There is a leisure of "winding paths leading to secluded places, deep flowers and trees in Zen houses", which makes people immediately put down their worries.
一同赏析中式古建筑,六个派系共同之美
Appreciation of Chinese Ancient Architecture and the Beauty of Six Factions
这种强调把景观、建筑、人文三位一体的均衡美学,以迂回蜿蜒,藏而不露的“园林”,展示给每个置身其中的游客,令人叹为观止。
This kind of balanced aesthetics, which emphasizes the integration of landscape, architecture and humanities, is showcased to every visitor with its winding and hidden gardens, which is amazing.
晋派:窑洞与晋商
Jin School: Caves and Shanxi Merchants
气势恢宏、斗拱飞檐,彩饰金装,砖瓦磨合,城楼细做……晋派的建筑代表着一个时期的肉体图腾。关于晋派建筑作风,具代表性的当然是乔家大院。稳健大气,严谨深沉,极富哲思。
Grand momentum, arch eaves, decorative gold, bricks and tiles run in, city buildings do fine... The architecture of Jin School represents a period of physical totem. About the style of architecture of Jin School, the most representative of course is Qiao's courtyard. Steady atmosphere, rigorous and deep, very philosophical.
一同赏析中式古建筑,六个派系共同之美
Appreciation of Chinese Ancient Architecture and the Beauty of Six Factions
普通来讲,晋派建筑大致分为两类:一类是山西的城市建筑,这是狭义上的晋派建筑;还有一种是陕北及周边地域的窑洞,这也是西北地域散布广的一种建筑作风。
Generally speaking, Jin architecture can be divided into two categories: one is Shanxi urban architecture, which is narrowly Jin architecture; the other is the caves in northern Shaanxi and its surrounding areas, which is also the most widely distributed architectural style in Northwest China.
一同赏析中式古建筑,六个派系共同之美
Appreciation of Chinese Ancient Architecture and the Beauty of Six Factions
穴居式的古老寓居方式,粗暴的窑洞设计,外表是搭建在黄土上的普通民居,内里却是陕北地域堆积数千年的历史与文化。
The old cave dwelling style, rough cave design, the appearance is built on the Loess of the ordinary dwelling, but the inner part is the history and culture of northern Shaanxi accumulated for thousands of years.
闽派:土楼与设计
Fujian School: Earth Building and Design
闽派建筑以“土楼”为为鲜明的作风符号。历经500多年传承,将生土夯筑技术发挥到极致,单体建筑范围庞大精密,地堡式建筑作风沿用至今巩固无比,既可防火防震,亦可御敌入侵。
The most striking style symbol of Fujian architecture is "Tulou". After more than 500 years of inheritance, the technology of tamping has been brought into full play. The single building has a large and precise scope. The style of bunker building has been consolidated so far. It can not only prevent fire and earthquake, but also resist the invasion of the enemy.
一同赏析中式古建筑,六个派系共同之美
Appreciation of Chinese Ancient Architecture and the Beauty of Six Factions
闽派建筑常见的类型有圆楼、方楼、五凤楼、宫殿式楼等,楼内消费、生活、防卫设备齐全,楼外与天地,景观融为一体,是建筑学、社会学、规划学等多种古人聪慧的结晶。
The common types of Fujian architecture are round building, square building, Wufeng building, Palace building, etc. The consumption, life and defense equipment in the building are complete, and the outside of the building is integrated with heaven and earth and landscape. It is the crystallization of the wisdom of many ancient people, such as architecture, sociology, planning and so on.
一同赏析中式古建筑,六个派系共同之美
Appreciation of Chinese Ancient Architecture and the Beauty of Six Factions
川派:多民族文化的交融
Sichuan School: the Blending of Multinational Cultures
川派建筑的尊贵,在于它交融多民族聪慧,吊脚楼是建筑的灵魂。作为巴楚文化的活化石,依山就造在山上,靠河就住在河边,就势而建,丝檐走栏,自成一派,看似随意却对建筑学技术非常有请求。
The honor of Sichuan style architecture lies in its blending of multi-ethnic wisdom, and the hanging-feet building is the soul of architecture. As a living fossil of Bachu culture, it was built on the hill, lived by the river, built in accordance with the situation, with silk eaves and fences, and was independent, seemingly random but very demanding for architectural technology.
一同赏析中式古建筑,六个派系共同之美
Appreciation of Chinese Ancient Architecture and the Beauty of Six Factions
盛行于四川、云南、贵州等地的建筑作风,都能够统称川派建筑,以傣族竹楼、侗族鼓楼、川西吊脚楼,具鲜明特征。
Architectural styles prevailing in Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou can be collectively referred to as Chuanpai Architecture, with the most distinctive features of Dai Bamboo Tower, Dong Drum Tower and Chuanxi Suspension Tower.
一同赏析中式古建筑,六个派系共同之美
Appreciation of Chinese Ancient Architecture and the Beauty of Six Factions
一砖一瓦之下,一榫一卯之间,一转一折之际,正是这些建筑凝结着中国各地,几千年以来,对“家”深入的了解。
Under bricks and tiles, between tenons and mortises, when turning around and turning around, it is these buildings that condensate all parts of China, for thousands of years, to have a deep understanding of "home".
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