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园林古建筑设计应该注意什么?
发布时间:2019-03-22
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来源: http://www.sdhuiyun.com
中国古代园林古建筑的主流是木结构,而欧洲园林古建筑的主流是石结构,两者间的差别十分明显。造成这种差别的原因,以笔者的管见,大约有如下几种可能。
The main stream of ancient Chinese gardens is wood structure, while the main stream of ancient European gardens is stone structure. The difference between them is very obvious. In my opinion, there are several possible reasons for this difference.
一是建筑目的方面。西方古代与中世纪的主流建筑,是为彼岸的神灵建造的。神灵或上帝是至上的存在,为神与上帝的建筑,要永恒、宏伟,具有威慑人的力量。西方人往往会花上上百年的时间,去建造一座大教堂,因为它是彼岸的,而不是现世的,建造者也就并不期待在很短的时间内建造成功。而中国古代园林古建的主流建筑是为现世的人建造的,如帝王的宫殿、苑囿,政府衙署与各种不同等级的住宅,这是中国园林古建筑的主流部分。
One is the purpose of architecture. The mainstream buildings in ancient and medieval Western countries were built for the gods on the other side. Spirit or God is the Supreme existence. The building of God and God should be eternal, magnificent and deterrent. Westerners often spend hundreds of years building a cathedral, because it's on the other side, not the world, and builders don't expect success in a very short time. The main buildings of ancient Chinese gardens are built for the people of the world, such as the palaces and gardens of the emperors, government offices and various residential buildings of different grades, which are the mainstream parts of ancient Chinese gardens.
二是文化取向方面。西方人对石头有着特殊的爱好。古代希腊神话中,遭遇大洪水的人类,是通过石头再造出来的,石头是创造人类的物质,因而,用石头建造重要的建筑,也是合情合理的
园林建筑工程
Second, cultural orientation. Westerners have a special hobby for stones. In ancient Greek mythology, people who suffered from great floods were reconstructed through stones, which were the material to create human beings. Therefore, it is reasonable to use stones to build the most important buildings.
三是建筑理念方面。古代罗马建筑师,早在2000年以前,就提出了“坚固、实用、美观”的建筑三原则。
Third, the concept of architecture. Ancient Roman architects, as early as 2000 years ago, put forward three principles of "solid, practical and beautiful" architecture.
园林古建知识
Knowledge of Ancient Landscape Architecture
榭、舫、廊。榭,水边建筑,人们在此倚栏赏景,《园冶》中曰:“榭者借也,借景而成者也,或水边,或花畔,制亦随态”。榭不但多设与水边,而且多设于水之南岸,视线向北而观景,如网师园中的“濯缨水阁”、怡园中的“藕香榭”等都是朝北的,这样所见之景是向阳的。舫的原意是船,一般指小船。建筑上的舫是指水边的一种建筑,在园林湖泊的水边建造起来的一种船形建筑。舫的下部船体通常用石砌成,上部船舱则多用木构建筑,其形似船。
Xie, Fang and Corridor. Xie, waterfront architecture, people here rely on the fence to appreciate the scenery, "Yuanye" said: "Xie borrows the scenery and becomes a person, or the water, or the flower, the system also follows the state." Xie is not only located at the water's edge, but also on the South Bank of the water. The view is northward, such as the "Miaoshui Pavilion" in Netmaster's Garden and the "Lotus Champs" in Yiyuan Garden, which are facing the north, so the view is sunny. Boat originally means boat, generally refers to small boat. Architectural bow refers to a kind of building near the water, which is a kind of ship-shaped building built on the water side of garden lakes. The lower hull of the stern is usually made of stone, while the upper hull is usually made of wood, which resembles a ship.
舫建在水边,一般是两面或三面临水,其余面与陆地相连,是四面临水,其一侧设有平桥与湖岸相连,有仿跳板之意。其立于水中,又与岸边环境相联系,使空间得到了延伸,具有富于变化的联系方式,即可以突出主题,又能进一步表达设计意图。廊是建筑物的柱间,有的还设有栏杆,其地面是桥面,下部是水,柱下设墩置于水中,廊水交融,和谐得体。廊一般较长,为弯曲而又有些起伏状,十分动人。
Boat is built on two or three sides of the water, the rest is connected with land, preferably four sides of the water, one side of which is connected with the lake bank by a flat bridge, with the intention of imitating a springboard. It stands in water and is connected with the coastal environment, which extends the space and has a changeable contact mode, which can highlight the theme and further express the design intention. The corridor is between the pillars of the building, and some are also equipped with railings. The ground is the bridge deck and the lower part is the water. The piers under the pillars are placed in the water. The corridor water blends harmoniously and appropriately. The corridor is generally long, curved and somewhat undulating, very moving.
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